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Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4



Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.4 > Modules

Apache Core Features

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Description:Core Apache HTTP Server features that are always
available
Status:Core

Directives

 AcceptFilter
 AcceptPathInfo
 AccessFileName
 AddDefaultCharset
 AllowEncodedSlashes
 AllowOverride
 AllowOverrideList
 CGIMapExtension
 CGIPassAuth
 CGIVar
 ContentDigest
 DefaultRuntimeDir
 DefaultType
 Define
 <Directory>
 <DirectoryMatch>
 DocumentRoot
 <Else>
 <ElseIf>
 EnableMMAP
 EnableSendfile
 Error
 ErrorDocument
 ErrorLog
 ErrorLogFormat
 ExtendedStatus
 FileETag
 <Files>
 <FilesMatch>
 ForceType
 GprofDir
 HostnameLookups
 HttpProtocolOptions
 <If>
 <IfDefine>
 <IfModule>
 Include
 IncludeOptional
 KeepAlive
 KeepAliveTimeout
 <Limit>
 <LimitExcept>
 LimitInternalRecursion
 LimitRequestBody
 LimitRequestFields
 LimitRequestFieldSize
 LimitRequestLine
 LimitXMLRequestBody
 <Location>
 <LocationMatch>
 LogLevel
 MaxKeepAliveRequests
 MaxRangeOverlaps
 MaxRangeReversals
 MaxRanges
 MergeTrailers
 Mutex
 NameVirtualHost
 Options
 Protocol
 Protocols
 ProtocolsHonorOrder
 QualifyRedirectURL
 RegisterHttpMethod
 RLimitCPU
 RLimitMEM
 RLimitNPROC
 ScriptInterpreterSource
 SeeRequestTail
 ServerAdmin
 ServerAlias
 ServerName
 ServerPath
 ServerRoot
 ServerSignature
 ServerTokens
 SetHandler
 SetInputFilter
 SetOutputFilter
 TimeOut
 TraceEnable
 UnDefine
 UseCanonicalName
 UseCanonicalPhysicalPort
 <VirtualHost>

Bugfix checklisthttpd changelogKnown issuesReport a bugSee also

Comments


AcceptFilter Directive

Description:Configures optimizations for a Protocol's Listener Sockets
Syntax:AcceptFilter protocol accept_filter
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive enables operating system specific optimizations for a
       listening socket by the Protocol type.
       The basic premise is for the kernel to not send a socket to the server
       process until either data is received or an entire HTTP Request is buffered.
       Only 
       FreeBSD's Accept Filters, Linux's more primitive
       TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT, and Windows' optimized AcceptEx()
       are currently supported.

    Using none for an argument will disable any accept filters
       for that protocol.  This is useful for protocols that require a server
       send data first, such as ftp: or nntp:
    AcceptFilter nntp none


    The default protocol names are https for port 443
       and http for all other ports.  To specify that another
       protocol is being used with a listening port, add the protocol
       argument to the Listen
       directive.

    The default values on FreeBSD are:
    AcceptFilter http httpready
AcceptFilter https dataready


    The httpready accept filter buffers entire HTTP requests at
       the kernel level.  Once an entire request is received, the kernel then
       sends it to the server. See the
       
       accf_http(9) man page for more details.  Since HTTPS requests are
       encrypted, only the 
       accf_data(9) filter is used.

    The default values on Linux are:
    AcceptFilter http data
AcceptFilter https data


    Linux's TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT does not support buffering http
       requests.  Any value besides none will enable
       TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT on that listener. For more details
       see the Linux
       
       tcp(7) man page.

    The default values on Windows are:
    AcceptFilter http connect
AcceptFilter https connect


    Window's mpm_winnt interprets the AcceptFilter to toggle the AcceptEx()
       API, and does not support http protocol buffering. connect
       will use the AcceptEx() API, also retrieve the network endpoint
       addresses, but like none the connect option
       does not wait for the initial data transmission.

    On Windows, none uses accept() rather than AcceptEx()
       and will not recycle sockets between connections.  This is useful for
       network adapters with broken driver support, as well as some virtual
       network providers such as vpn drivers, or spam, virus or spyware
       filters.

    
      The data AcceptFilter (Windows)

      For versions 2.4.23 and prior, the Windows data accept
         filter waited until data had been transmitted and the initial data
         buffer and network endpoint addresses had been retrieved from the
         single AcceptEx() invocation. This implementation was subject to a
         denial of service attack and has been disabled.

      Current releases of httpd default to the connect filter
         on Windows, and will fall back to connect if
         data is specified. Users of prior releases are encouraged
         to add an explicit setting of connect for their
         AcceptFilter, as shown above.
    


See also

Protocol



AcceptPathInfo Directive

Description:Resources accept trailing pathname information
Syntax:AcceptPathInfo On|Off|Default
Default:AcceptPathInfo Default
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core


    This directive controls whether requests that contain trailing
    pathname information that follows an actual filename (or
    non-existent file in an existing directory) will be accepted or
    rejected.  The trailing pathname information can be made
    available to scripts in the PATH_INFO environment
    variable.

    For example, assume the location /test/ points to
    a directory that contains only the single file
    here.html.  Then requests for
    /test/here.html/more and
    /test/nothere.html/more both collect
    /more as PATH_INFO.

    The three possible arguments for the
    AcceptPathInfo directive are:
    
    OffA request will only be accepted if it
    maps to a literal path that exists.  Therefore a request with
    trailing pathname information after the true filename such as
    /test/here.html/more in the above example will return
    a 404 NOT FOUND error.

    OnA request will be accepted if a
    leading path component maps to a file that exists.  The above
    example /test/here.html/more will be accepted if
    /test/here.html maps to a valid file.

    DefaultThe treatment of requests with
    trailing pathname information is determined by the handler responsible for the request.
    The core handler for normal files defaults to rejecting
    PATH_INFO requests. Handlers that serve scripts, such as cgi-script and isapi-handler, generally accept
    PATH_INFO by default.
    

    The primary purpose of the AcceptPathInfo
    directive is to allow you to override the handler's choice of
    accepting or rejecting PATH_INFO. This override is required,
    for example, when you use a filter, such
    as INCLUDES, to generate content
    based on PATH_INFO.  The core handler would usually reject
    the request, so you can use the following configuration to enable
    such a script:

    <Files "mypaths.shtml">
  Options +Includes
  SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
  AcceptPathInfo On
</Files>





AccessFileName Directive

Description:Name of the distributed configuration file
Syntax:AccessFileName filename [filename] ...
Default:AccessFileName .htaccess
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    While processing a request, the server looks for
    the first existing configuration file from this list of names in
    every directory of the path to the document, if distributed
    configuration files are enabled for that
    directory. For example:

    AccessFileName .acl


    Before returning the document
    /usr/local/web/index.html, the server will read
    /.acl, /usr/.acl,
    /usr/local/.acl and /usr/local/web/.acl
    for directives unless they have been disabled with:

    <Directory "/">
    AllowOverride None
</Directory>


See also

AllowOverride
Configuration Files
.htaccess Files



AddDefaultCharset Directive

Description:Default charset parameter to be added when a response
content-type is text/plain or text/html
Syntax:AddDefaultCharset On|Off|charset
Default:AddDefaultCharset Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive specifies a default value for the media type
    charset parameter (the name of a character encoding) to be added
    to a response if and only if the response's content-type is either
    text/plain or text/html.  This should override
    any charset specified in the body of the response via a META
    element, though the exact behavior is often dependent on the user's client
    configuration. A setting of AddDefaultCharset Off
    disables this functionality. AddDefaultCharset On enables
    a default charset of iso-8859-1. Any other value is assumed
    to be the charset to be used, which should be one of the
    IANA registered
    charset values for use in Internet media types (MIME types).
    For example:

    AddDefaultCharset utf-8


    AddDefaultCharset should only be used when all
    of the text resources to which it applies are known to be in that
    character encoding and it is too inconvenient to label their charset
    individually. One such example is to add the charset parameter
    to resources containing generated content, such as legacy CGI
    scripts, that might be vulnerable to cross-site scripting attacks
    due to user-provided data being included in the output.  Note, however,
    that a better solution is to just fix (or delete) those scripts, since
    setting a default charset does not protect users that have enabled
    the "auto-detect character encoding" feature on their browser.

See also

AddCharset



AllowEncodedSlashes Directive

Description:Determines whether encoded path separators in URLs are allowed to
be passed through
Syntax:AllowEncodedSlashes On|Off|NoDecode
Default:AllowEncodedSlashes Off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:
NoDecode option available in 2.3.12 and later.

    The AllowEncodedSlashes directive allows URLs
    which contain encoded path separators (%2F for /
    and additionally %5C for \ on accordant systems)
    to be used in the path info.

    With the default value, Off, such URLs are refused
    with a 404 (Not found) error.

    With the value On, such URLs are accepted, and encoded
      slashes are decoded like all other encoded characters.

    With the value NoDecode, such URLs are accepted, but
      encoded slashes are not decoded but left in their encoded state.

    Turning AllowEncodedSlashes On is
    mostly useful when used in conjunction with PATH_INFO.

    Note
      If encoded slashes are needed in path info, use of NoDecode is
      strongly recommended as a security measure.  Allowing slashes
      to be decoded could potentially allow unsafe paths.
    

See also

AcceptPathInfo



AllowOverride Directive

Description:Types of directives that are allowed in
.htaccess files
Syntax:AllowOverride All|None|directive-type
[directive-type] ...
Default:AllowOverride None (2.3.9 and later), AllowOverride All (2.3.8 and earlier)
Context:directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    When the server finds an .htaccess file (as
    specified by AccessFileName),
    it needs to know which directives declared in that file can override
    earlier configuration directives.

    Only available in <Directory> sections
    AllowOverride is valid only in
    <Directory>
    sections specified without regular expressions, not in <Location>, <DirectoryMatch> or
    <Files> sections.
    

    When this directive is set to None and AllowOverrideList is set to
    None, .htaccess files are
    completely ignored. In this case, the server will not even attempt
    to read .htaccess files in the filesystem.

    When this directive is set to All, then any
    directive which has the .htaccess Context is allowed in
    .htaccess files.

    The directive-type can be one of the following
    groupings of directives.

    
      AuthConfig

      

      Allow use of the authorization directives (AuthDBMGroupFile,
      AuthDBMUserFile,
      AuthGroupFile,
      AuthName,
      AuthType, AuthUserFile, Require, etc.).

      FileInfo

      
      Allow use of the directives controlling document types
     (ErrorDocument,
      ForceType,
      LanguagePriority,
      SetHandler,
      SetInputFilter,
      SetOutputFilter, and
      mod_mime Add* and Remove* directives),
      document meta data (Header, RequestHeader, SetEnvIf, SetEnvIfNoCase, BrowserMatch, CookieExpires, CookieDomain, CookieStyle, CookieTracking, CookieName),
      mod_rewrite directives (RewriteEngine, RewriteOptions, RewriteBase, RewriteCond, RewriteRule),
      mod_alias directives (Redirect, RedirectTemp, RedirectPermanent, RedirectMatch), and
      Action from
      mod_actions.
      

      Indexes

      
      Allow use of the directives controlling directory indexing
      (AddDescription,
      AddIcon, AddIconByEncoding,
      AddIconByType,
      DefaultIcon, DirectoryIndex, FancyIndexing, HeaderName, IndexIgnore, IndexOptions, ReadmeName,
      etc.).

      Limit

      
      Allow use of the directives controlling host access (Allow, Deny and Order).

      Nonfatal=[Override|Unknown|All]

      
      Allow use of AllowOverride option to treat syntax errors in
      .htaccess as nonfatal. Instead of causing an Internal Server
      Error, disallowed or unrecognised directives will be ignored
      and a warning logged:
      
          Nonfatal=Override treats directives
              forbidden by AllowOverride as nonfatal.
          Nonfatal=Unknown treats unknown directives
              as nonfatal.  This covers typos and directives implemented
              by a module that's not present.
          Nonfatal=All treats both the above as nonfatal.
      
      Note that a syntax error in a valid directive will still cause
      an internal server error.
      Security
          Nonfatal errors may have security implications for .htaccess users.
          For example, if AllowOverride disallows AuthConfig, users'
          configuration designed to restrict access to a site will be disabled.
      
      

      Options[=Option,...]

      
      Allow use of the directives controlling specific directory
      features (Options and
      XBitHack).
      An equal sign may be given followed by a comma-separated list, without
      spaces, of options that may be set using the Options command.

      Implicit disabling of Options
      Even though the list of options that may be used in .htaccess files
         can be limited with this directive, as long as any Options directive is allowed any
         other inherited option can be disabled by using the non-relative
         syntax.  In other words, this mechanism cannot force a specific option
         to remain set while allowing any others to be set.
      

      
      AllowOverride Options=Indexes,MultiViews
      
      
    

    Example:

    AllowOverride AuthConfig Indexes


    In the example above, all directives that are neither in the group
    AuthConfig nor Indexes cause an internal
    server error.

    For security and performance reasons, do not set
    AllowOverride to anything other than None
    in your <Directory "/"> block. Instead, find (or
    create) the <Directory> block that refers to the
    directory where you're actually planning to place a
    .htaccess file.
    

See also

AccessFileName
AllowOverrideList
Configuration Files
.htaccess Files



AllowOverrideList Directive

Description:Individual directives that are allowed in
.htaccess files
Syntax:AllowOverrideList None|directive
[directive-type] ...
Default:AllowOverrideList None
Context:directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    When the server finds an .htaccess file (as
    specified by AccessFileName),
    it needs to know which directives declared in that file can override
    earlier configuration directives.

    Only available in <Directory> sections
    AllowOverrideList is valid only in
    <Directory>
    sections specified without regular expressions, not in <Location>, <DirectoryMatch> or
    <Files> sections.
    

    When this directive is set to None and AllowOverride is set to None,
    then .htaccess files are completely
    ignored.  In this case, the server will not even attempt to read
    .htaccess files in the filesystem.

    Example:

    AllowOverride None
AllowOverrideList Redirect RedirectMatch


    In the example above, only the Redirect and
    RedirectMatch directives are allowed. All others will
    cause an internal server error.

    Example:

    AllowOverride AuthConfig
AllowOverrideList CookieTracking CookieName


    In the example above, AllowOverride
     grants permission to the AuthConfig
    directive grouping and AllowOverrideList grants
    permission to only two directives from the FileInfo directive
    grouping. All others will cause an internal server error.

See also

AccessFileName
AllowOverride
Configuration Files
.htaccess Files



CGIMapExtension Directive

Description:Technique for locating the interpreter for CGI
scripts
Syntax:CGIMapExtension cgi-path .extension
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:NetWare only

    This directive is used to control how Apache httpd finds the
    interpreter used to run CGI scripts. For example, setting
    CGIMapExtension sys:\foo.nlm .foo will
    cause all CGI script files with a .foo extension to
    be passed to the FOO interpreter.



CGIPassAuth Directive

Description:Enables passing HTTP authorization headers to scripts as CGI
variables
Syntax:CGIPassAuth On|Off
Default:CGIPassAuth Off
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.4.13 and later

    CGIPassAuth allows scripts access to HTTP
    authorization headers such as Authorization, which is
    required for scripts that implement HTTP Basic authentication.
    Normally these HTTP headers are hidden from scripts. This is to disallow
    scripts from seeing user ids and passwords used to access the server when
    HTTP Basic authentication is enabled in the web server.  This directive
    should be used when scripts are allowed to implement HTTP Basic
    authentication.

    This directive can be used instead of the compile-time setting
    SECURITY_HOLE_PASS_AUTHORIZATION which has been available
    in previous versions of Apache HTTP Server.

    The setting is respected by any modules which use
    ap_add_common_vars(), such as mod_cgi,
    mod_cgid, mod_proxy_fcgi,
    mod_proxy_scgi, and so on.  Notably, it affects
    modules which don't handle the request in the usual sense but
    still use this API; examples of this are mod_include
    and mod_ext_filter.  Third-party modules that don't
    use ap_add_common_vars() may choose to respect the setting
    as well.



CGIVar Directive

Description:Controls how some CGI variables are set
Syntax:CGIVar variable rule
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.4.21 and later

  This directive controls how some CGI variables are set.

  REQUEST_URI rules:
  
    original-uri (default)
    The value is taken from the original request line, and will not
    reflect internal redirects or subrequests which change the requested
    resource.
    current-uri
    The value reflects the resource currently being processed,
    which may be different than the original request from the client
    due to internal redirects or subrequests.
  



ContentDigest Directive

Description:Enables the generation of Content-MD5 HTTP Response
headers
Syntax:ContentDigest On|Off
Default:ContentDigest Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:Options
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive enables the generation of
    Content-MD5 headers as defined in RFC1864
    respectively RFC2616.

    MD5 is an algorithm for computing a "message digest"
    (sometimes called "fingerprint") of arbitrary-length data, with
    a high degree of confidence that any alterations in the data
    will be reflected in alterations in the message digest.

    The Content-MD5 header provides an end-to-end
    message integrity check (MIC) of the entity-body. A proxy or
    client may check this header for detecting accidental
    modification of the entity-body in transit. Example header:

    
      Content-MD5: AuLb7Dp1rqtRtxz2m9kRpA==
    

    Note that this can cause performance problems on your server
    since the message digest is computed on every request (the
    values are not cached).

    Content-MD5 is only sent for documents served
    by the core, and not by any module. For example,
    SSI documents, output from CGI scripts, and byte range responses
    do not have this header.



DefaultRuntimeDir Directive

Description:Base directory for the server run-time files
Syntax:DefaultRuntimeDir directory-path
Default:DefaultRuntimeDir DEFAULT_REL_RUNTIMEDIR (logs/)
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.4.2 and later

    The DefaultRuntimeDir directive sets the
    directory in which the server will create various run-time files
    (shared memory, locks, etc.). If set as a relative path, the full path
    will be relative to ServerRoot.

    Example
   DefaultRuntimeDir scratch/


    The default location of DefaultRuntimeDir may be
    modified by changing the DEFAULT_REL_RUNTIMEDIR #define
    at build time.

   Note: ServerRoot should be specified before this
   directive is used. Otherwise, the default value of ServerRoot
   would be used to set the base directory.


See also

the
    security tips for information on how to properly set
    permissions on the ServerRoot



DefaultType Directive

Description:This directive has no effect other than to emit warnings
if the value is not none. In prior versions, DefaultType
would specify a default media type to assign to response content for
which no other media type configuration could be found.

Syntax:DefaultType media-type|none
Default:DefaultType none
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:The argument none is available in Apache httpd 2.2.7 and later.  All other choices are DISABLED for 2.3.x and later.

    This directive has been disabled.  For backwards compatibility
    of configuration files, it may be specified with the value
    none, meaning no default media type. For example:

    DefaultType None


    DefaultType None is only available in
    httpd-2.2.7 and later.

    Use the mime.types configuration file and the
    AddType to configure media
    type assignments via file extensions, or the
    ForceType directive to configure
    the media type for specific resources. Otherwise, the server will
    send the response without a Content-Type header field and the
    recipient may attempt to guess the media type.



Define Directive

Description:Define a variable
Syntax:Define parameter-name [parameter-value]
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    In its one parameter form, Define is equivalent
    to passing the -D argument to httpd. It
    can be used to toggle the use of
    <IfDefine> sections
    without needing to alter -D arguments in any startup
    scripts.

    In addition to that, if the second parameter is given, a config variable
    is set to this value. The variable can be used in the configuration using
    the ${VAR} syntax. The variable is always globally defined
    and not limited to the scope of the surrounding config section.

    <IfDefine TEST>
  Define servername test.example.com
</IfDefine>
<IfDefine !TEST>
  Define servername www.example.com
  Define SSL
</IfDefine>

DocumentRoot "/var/www/${servername}/htdocs"


    Variable names may not contain colon ":" characters, to avoid clashes
    with RewriteMap's syntax.

    While this directive is supported in virtual host and directory context,
       the changes it makes are visible to any later configuration
       directives, beyond any enclosing configuration section (matching or not).
       Support for the other configuration sections was erroneously permitted by the initial
       implementation of this directive and is only preserved (with unintuitive 
       results) to maintain backward compatibility.



<Directory> Directive

Description:Enclose a group of directives that apply only to the
named file-system directory, sub-directories, and their contents.
Syntax:<Directory directory-path>
... </Directory>
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    <Directory> and
    </Directory> are used to enclose a group of
    directives that will apply only to the named directory,
    sub-directories of that directory, and the files within the respective
    directories.  Any directive that is allowed
    in a directory context may be used. Directory-path is
    either the full path to a directory, or a wild-card string using
    Unix shell-style matching. In a wild-card string, ? matches
    any single character, and * matches any sequences of
    characters. You may also use [] character ranges. None
    of the wildcards match a `/' character, so <Directory
    "/*/public_html"> will not match
    /home/user/public_html, but <Directory
    "/home/*/public_html"> will match. Example:

    <Directory "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs">
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
</Directory>


    Directory paths may be quoted, if you like, however, it
    must be quoted if the path contains spaces. This is because a
    space would otherwise indicate the end of an argument.

    
      Be careful with the directory-path arguments:
      They have to literally match the filesystem path which Apache httpd uses
      to access the files. Directives applied to a particular
      <Directory> will not apply to files accessed from
      that same directory via a different path, such as via different symbolic
      links.
    

    Regular
    expressions can also be used, with the addition of the
    ~ character. For example:

    <Directory ~ "^/www/[0-9]{3}">

</Directory>


    would match directories in /www/ that consisted of
    three numbers.

    If multiple (non-regular expression) <Directory> sections
    match the directory (or one of its parents) containing a document,
    then the directives are applied in the order of shortest match
    first, interspersed with the directives from the .htaccess files. For example,
    with

    <Directory "/">
  AllowOverride None
</Directory>

<Directory "/home">
  AllowOverride FileInfo
</Directory>


    for access to the document /home/web/dir/doc.html
    the steps are:

    
      Apply directive AllowOverride None
      (disabling .htaccess files).

      Apply directive AllowOverride FileInfo (for
      directory /home).

      Apply any FileInfo directives in
      /home/.htaccess, /home/web/.htaccess and
      /home/web/dir/.htaccess in that order.
    

    Regular expressions are not considered until after all of the
    normal sections have been applied. Then all of the regular
    expressions are tested in the order they appeared in the
    configuration file. For example, with

    <Directory ~ "abc$">
  # ... directives here ...
</Directory>


    the regular expression section won't be considered until after
    all normal <Directory>s and
    .htaccess files have been applied. Then the regular
    expression will match on /home/abc/public_html/abc and
    the corresponding <Directory> will
    be applied.

   Note that the default access for
    <Directory "/"> is to permit all access.
    This means that Apache httpd will serve any file mapped from an URL. It is
    recommended that you change this with a block such
    as

    <Directory "/">
  Require all denied
</Directory>


    and then override this for directories you
    want accessible. See the Security Tips page for more
    details.

    The directory sections occur in the httpd.conf file.
    <Directory> directives
    cannot nest, and cannot appear in a <Limit> or <LimitExcept> section.

See also

How <Directory>,
    <Location> and <Files> sections work for an
    explanation of how these different sections are combined when a
    request is received



<DirectoryMatch> Directive

Description:Enclose directives that apply to
the contents of file-system directories matching a regular expression.
Syntax:<DirectoryMatch regex>
... </DirectoryMatch>
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    <DirectoryMatch> and
    </DirectoryMatch> are used to enclose a group
    of directives which will apply only to the named directory (and the files within),
    the same as <Directory>.
    However, it takes as an argument a
    regular expression.  For example:

    <DirectoryMatch "^/www/(.+/)?[0-9]{3}/">
    # ...
</DirectoryMatch>


    matches directories in /www/ (or any subdirectory thereof)
    that consist of three numbers.

   Compatability
      Prior to 2.3.9, this directive implicitly applied to sub-directories
      (like <Directory>) and
      could not match the end of line symbol ($).  In 2.3.9 and later,
      only directories that match the expression are affected by the enclosed
      directives.
    

    Trailing Slash
      This directive applies to requests for directories that may or may
      not end in a trailing slash, so expressions that are anchored to the
      end of line ($) must be written with care.
    

    From 2.4.8 onwards, named groups and backreferences are captured and
    written to the environment with the corresponding name prefixed with
    "MATCH_" and in upper case. This allows elements of paths to be referenced
    from within expressions and modules like
    mod_rewrite. In order to prevent confusion, numbered
    (unnamed) backreferences are ignored. Use named groups instead.

    <DirectoryMatch "^/var/www/combined/(?<sitename>[^/]+)">
    Require ldap-group cn=%{env:MATCH_SITENAME},ou=combined,o=Example
</DirectoryMatch>


See also

<Directory> for
a description of how regular expressions are mixed in with normal
<Directory>s
How <Directory>, <Location> and
<Files> sections work for an explanation of how these different
sections are combined when a request is received



DocumentRoot Directive

Description:Directory that forms the main document tree visible
from the web
Syntax:DocumentRoot directory-path
Default:DocumentRoot "/usr/local/apache/htdocs"
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive sets the directory from which httpd
    will serve files. Unless matched by a directive like Alias, the server appends the
    path from the requested URL to the document root to make the
    path to the document. Example:

    DocumentRoot "/usr/web"


    then an access to
    http://my.example.com/index.html refers to
    /usr/web/index.html. If the directory-path is
    not absolute then it is assumed to be relative to the ServerRoot.

    The DocumentRoot should be specified without
    a trailing slash.

See also

Mapping URLs to Filesystem
Locations



<Else> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply only if the condition of a
previous <If> or
<ElseIf> section is not
satisfied by a request at runtime
Syntax:<Else> ... </Else>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <Else> applies the enclosed
    directives if and only if the most recent
    <If> or
    <ElseIf> section
    in the same scope has not been applied.
    For example: In 

    <If "-z req('Host')">
  # ...
</If>
<Else>
  # ...
</Else>


     The <If> would match HTTP/1.0
        requests without a Host: header and the
        <Else> would match requests
        with a Host: header.


See also

<If>
<ElseIf>
How <Directory>, <Location>,
    <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received.
    <If>,
    <ElseIf>, and
    <Else> are applied last.



<ElseIf> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply only if a condition is satisfied
by a request at runtime while the condition of a previous
<If> or
<ElseIf> section is not
satisfied
Syntax:<ElseIf expression> ... </ElseIf>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <ElseIf> applies the enclosed
    directives if and only if both the given condition evaluates to true and
    the most recent <If> or
    <ElseIf> section in the same scope has
    not been applied.  For example: In 

    <If "-R '10.1.0.0/16'">
  #...
</If>
<ElseIf "-R '10.0.0.0/8'">
  #...
</ElseIf>
<Else>
  #...
</Else>


    The <ElseIf> would match if
    the remote address of a request belongs to the subnet 10.0.0.0/8 but
    not to the subnet 10.1.0.0/16.


See also

Expressions in Apache HTTP Server,
for a complete reference and more examples.
<If>
<Else>
How <Directory>, <Location>,
    <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received.
    <If>,
    <ElseIf>, and
    <Else> are applied last.



EnableMMAP Directive

Description:Use memory-mapping to read files during delivery
Syntax:EnableMMAP On|Off
Default:EnableMMAP On
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive controls whether the httpd may use
    memory-mapping if it needs to read the contents of a file during
    delivery.  By default, when the handling of a request requires
    access to the data within a file -- for example, when delivering a
    server-parsed file using mod_include -- Apache httpd
    memory-maps the file if the OS supports it.

    This memory-mapping sometimes yields a performance improvement.
    But in some environments, it is better to disable the memory-mapping
    to prevent operational problems:

    
    On some multiprocessor systems, memory-mapping can reduce the
    performance of the httpd.
    Deleting or truncating a file while httpd
      has it memory-mapped can cause httpd to
      crash with a segmentation fault.
    
    

    For server configurations that are vulnerable to these problems,
    you should disable memory-mapping of delivered files by specifying:

    EnableMMAP Off


    For NFS mounted files, this feature may be disabled explicitly for
    the offending files by specifying:

    <Directory "/path-to-nfs-files">
  EnableMMAP Off
</Directory>




EnableSendfile Directive

Description:Use the kernel sendfile support to deliver files to the client
Syntax:EnableSendfile On|Off
Default:EnableSendfile Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Default changed to Off in
version 2.3.9.

    This directive controls whether httpd may use the
    sendfile support from the kernel to transmit file contents to the client.
    By default, when the handling of a request requires no access
    to the data within a file -- for example, when delivering a
    static file -- Apache httpd uses sendfile to deliver the file contents
    without ever reading the file if the OS supports it.

    This sendfile mechanism avoids separate read and send operations,
    and buffer allocations. But on some platforms or within some
    filesystems, it is better to disable this feature to avoid
    operational problems:

    
    Some platforms may have broken sendfile support that the build
    system did not detect, especially if the binaries were built on
    another box and moved to such a machine with broken sendfile
    support.
    On Linux the use of sendfile triggers TCP-checksum
    offloading bugs on certain networking cards when using IPv6.
    On Linux on Itanium, sendfile may be unable to handle
    files over 2GB in size.
    With a network-mounted DocumentRoot (e.g., NFS, SMB, CIFS, FUSE),
    the kernel may be unable to serve the network file through
    its own cache.
    

    For server configurations that are not vulnerable to these problems,
    you may enable this feature by specifying:

    EnableSendfile On


    For network mounted files, this feature may be disabled explicitly
    for the offending files by specifying:

    <Directory "/path-to-nfs-files">
  EnableSendfile Off
</Directory>

    Please note that the per-directory and .htaccess configuration
       of EnableSendfile is not supported by
       mod_cache_disk.
       Only global definition of EnableSendfile
       is taken into account by the module.
    



Error Directive

Description:Abort configuration parsing with a custom error message
Syntax:Error message
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:2.3.9 and later

    If an error can be detected within the configuration, this
    directive can be used to generate a custom error message, and halt
    configuration parsing.  The typical use is for reporting required
    modules which are missing from the configuration.

    # Example
# ensure that mod_include is loaded
<IfModule !include_module>
  Error "mod_include is required by mod_foo.  Load it with LoadModule."
</IfModule>

# ensure that exactly one of SSL,NOSSL is defined
<IfDefine SSL>
<IfDefine NOSSL>
  Error "Both SSL and NOSSL are defined.  Define only one of them."
</IfDefine>
</IfDefine>
<IfDefine !SSL>
<IfDefine !NOSSL>
  Error "Either SSL or NOSSL must be defined."
</IfDefine>
</IfDefine>





ErrorDocument Directive

Description:What the server will return to the client
in case of an error
Syntax:ErrorDocument error-code document
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    In the event of a problem or error, Apache httpd can be configured
    to do one of four things,

    
      output a simple hardcoded error message

      output a customized message

      internally redirect to a local URL-path to handle the
      problem/error

      redirect to an external URL to handle the
      problem/error
    

    The first option is the default, while options 2-4 are
    configured using the ErrorDocument
    directive, which is followed by the HTTP response code and a URL
    or a message. Apache httpd will sometimes offer additional information
    regarding the problem/error.

    From 2.4.13, expression syntax can be
    used inside the directive to produce dynamic strings and URLs.

    URLs can begin with a slash (/) for local web-paths (relative
    to the DocumentRoot), or be a
    full URL which the client can resolve. Alternatively, a message
    can be provided to be displayed by the browser. Note that deciding
    whether the parameter is an URL, a path or a message is performed
    before any expression is parsed. Examples:

    ErrorDocument 500 http://example.com/cgi-bin/server-error.cgi
ErrorDocument 404 /errors/bad_urls.php
ErrorDocument 401 /subscription_info.html
ErrorDocument 403 "Sorry, can't allow you access today"
ErrorDocument 403 Forbidden!
ErrorDocument 403 /errors/forbidden.py?referrer=%{escape:%{HTTP_REFERER}}


    Additionally, the special value default can be used
    to specify Apache httpd's simple hardcoded message.  While not required
    under normal circumstances, default will restore
    Apache httpd's simple hardcoded message for configurations that would
    otherwise inherit an existing ErrorDocument.

    ErrorDocument 404 /cgi-bin/bad_urls.pl

<Directory "/web/docs">
  ErrorDocument 404 default
</Directory>


    Note that when you specify an ErrorDocument
    that points to a remote URL (ie. anything with a method such as
    http in front of it), Apache HTTP Server will send a redirect to the
    client to tell it where to find the document, even if the
    document ends up being on the same server. This has several
    implications, the most important being that the client will not
    receive the original error status code, but instead will
    receive a redirect status code. This in turn can confuse web
    robots and other clients which try to determine if a URL is
    valid using the status code. In addition, if you use a remote
    URL in an ErrorDocument 401, the client will not
    know to prompt the user for a password since it will not
    receive the 401 status code. Therefore, if you use an
    ErrorDocument 401 directive, then it must refer to a local
    document.

    Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE) will by default ignore
    server-generated error messages when they are "too small" and substitute
    its own "friendly" error messages. The size threshold varies depending on
    the type of error, but in general, if you make your error document
    greater than 512 bytes, then MSIE will show the server-generated
    error rather than masking it.  More information is available in
    Microsoft Knowledge Base article Q294807.

    Although most error messages can be overridden, there are certain
    circumstances where the internal messages are used regardless of the
    setting of ErrorDocument.  In
    particular, if a malformed request is detected, normal request processing
    will be immediately halted and the internal error message returned.
    This is necessary to guard against security problems caused by
    bad requests.

    If you are using mod_proxy, you may wish to enable
    ProxyErrorOverride so that you can provide
    custom error messages on behalf of your Origin servers. If you don't enable ProxyErrorOverride,
    Apache httpd will not generate custom error documents for proxied content.

See also

documentation of
    customizable responses



ErrorLog Directive

Description:Location where the server will log errors
Syntax: ErrorLog file-path|syslog[:facility]
Default:ErrorLog logs/error_log (Unix) ErrorLog logs/error.log (Windows and OS/2)
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ErrorLog directive sets the name of
    the file to which the server will log any errors it encounters. If
    the file-path is not absolute then it is assumed to be
    relative to the ServerRoot.

    ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/error_log"


    If the file-path
    begins with a pipe character "|" then it is assumed to be a
    command to spawn to handle the error log.

    ErrorLog "|/usr/local/bin/httpd_errors"


    See the notes on piped logs for
    more information.

    Using syslog instead of a filename enables logging
    via syslogd(8) if the system supports it. The default is to use
    syslog facility local7, but you can override this by
    using the syslog:facility syntax where
    facility can be one of the names usually documented in
    syslog(1).  The facility is effectively global, and if it is changed
    in individual virtual hosts, the final facility specified affects the
    entire server.

    ErrorLog syslog:user


    Additional modules can provide their own ErrorLog providers. The syntax
    is similar to the syslog example above.

    SECURITY: See the security tips
    document for details on why your security could be compromised
    if the directory where log files are stored is writable by
    anyone other than the user that starts the server.
    Note
      When entering a file path on non-Unix platforms, care should be taken
      to make sure that only forward slashes are used even though the platform
      may allow the use of back slashes. In general it is a good idea to always
      use forward slashes throughout the configuration files.
    

See also

LogLevel
Apache HTTP Server Log Files



ErrorLogFormat Directive

Description:Format specification for error log entries
Syntax: ErrorLogFormat [connection|request] format
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    ErrorLogFormat allows to specify what
    supplementary information is logged in the error log in addition to the
    actual log message.

    #Simple example
ErrorLogFormat "[%t] [%l] [pid %P] %F: %E: [client %a] %M"


    Specifying connection or request as first
    parameter allows to specify additional formats, causing additional
    information to be logged when the first message is logged for a specific
    connection or request, respectively. This additional information is only
    logged once per connection/request. If a connection or request is processed
    without causing any log message, the additional information is not logged
    either.

    It can happen that some format string items do not produce output.  For
    example, the Referer header is only present if the log message is
    associated to a request and the log message happens at a time when the
    Referer header has already been read from the client.  If no output is
    produced, the default behavior is to delete everything from the preceding
    space character to the next space character.  This means the log line is
    implicitly divided into fields on non-whitespace to whitespace transitions.
    If a format string item does not produce output, the whole field is
    omitted.  For example, if the remote address %a in the log
    format [%t] [%l] [%a] %M  is not available, the surrounding
    brackets are not logged either.  Space characters can be escaped with a
    backslash to prevent them from delimiting a field.  The combination '% '
    (percent space) is a zero-width field delimiter that does not produce any
    output.

    The above behavior can be changed by adding modifiers to the format
    string item. A - (minus) modifier causes a minus to be logged if the
    respective item does not produce any output. In once-per-connection/request
    formats, it is also possible to use the + (plus) modifier. If an
    item with the plus modifier does not produce any output, the whole line is
    omitted.

    A number as modifier can be used to assign a log severity level to a
    format item. The item will only be logged if the severity of the log
    message is not higher than the specified log severity level. The number can
    range from 1 (alert) over 4 (warn) and 7 (debug) to 15 (trace8).

    For example, here's what would happen if you added modifiers to
    the %{Referer}i token, which logs the
    Referer request header.

    Modified TokenMeaning

    %-{Referer}i
    Logs a - if Referer is not set.
    

    %+{Referer}i
    Omits the entire line if Referer is not set.
    

    %4{Referer}i
    Logs the Referer only if the log message severity
    is higher than 4.
    


    Some format string items accept additional parameters in braces.

    Format String Description
%%
        The percent sign
%a
        Client IP address and port of the request
%{c}a
        Underlying peer IP address and port of the connection (see the
            mod_remoteip module)
%A
        Local IP-address and port
%{name}e
        Request environment variable name
%E
        APR/OS error status code and string
%F
        Source file name and line number of the log call
%{name}i
        Request header name
%k
        Number of keep-alive requests on this connection
%l
        Loglevel of the message
%L
        Log ID of the request
%{c}L
        Log ID of the connection
%{C}L
        Log ID of the connection if used in connection scope, empty otherwise
%m
        Name of the module logging the message
%M
        The actual log message
%{name}n
        Request note name
%P
        Process ID of current process
%T
        Thread ID of current thread
%{g}T
        System unique thread ID of current thread (the same ID as
            displayed by e.g. top; currently Linux only)
%t
        The current time
%{u}t
        The current time including micro-seconds
%{cu}t
        The current time in compact ISO 8601 format, including
            micro-seconds
%v
        The canonical ServerName
            of the current server.
%V
        The server name of the server serving the request according to the
            UseCanonicalName
            setting.
\  (backslash space)
        Non-field delimiting space
%  (percent space)
        Field delimiter (no output)


    The log ID format %L produces a unique id for a connection
    or request. This can be used to correlate which log lines belong to the
    same connection or request, which request happens on which connection.
    A %L format string is also available in
    mod_log_config to allow to correlate access log entries
    with error log lines. If mod_unique_id is loaded, its
    unique id will be used as log ID for requests.

    #Example (default format for threaded MPMs)
ErrorLogFormat "[%{u}t] [%-m:%l] [pid %P:tid %T] %7F: %E: [client\ %a] %M%,\referer\%{Referer}i"


    This would result in error messages such as:

    
    [Thu May 12 08:28:57.652118 2011] [core:error] [pid 8777:tid 4326490112] [client ::1:58619] File does not exist: /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/favicon.ico
    

    Notice that, as discussed above, some fields are omitted
    entirely because they are not defined.

    #Example (similar to the 2.2.x format)
ErrorLogFormat "[%t] [%l] %7F: %E: [client\ %a] %M%,\referer\%{Referer}i"


    #Advanced example with request/connection log IDs
ErrorLogFormat "[%{uc}t] [%-m:%-l] [R:%L] [C:%{C}L] %7F: %E: %M"
ErrorLogFormat request "[%{uc}t] [R:%L] Request %k on C:%{c}L pid:%P tid:%T"
ErrorLogFormat request "[%{uc}t] [R:%L] UA:'%+{User-Agent}i'"
ErrorLogFormat request "[%{uc}t] [R:%L] Referer:'%+{Referer}i'"
ErrorLogFormat connection "[%{uc}t] [C:%{c}L] local\ %a remote\ %A"



See also

ErrorLog
LogLevel
Apache HTTP Server Log Files



ExtendedStatus Directive

Description:Keep track of extended status information for each
request
Syntax:ExtendedStatus On|Off
Default:ExtendedStatus Off[*]
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    This option tracks additional data per worker about the
    currently executing request and creates a utilization summary.
    You can see these variables during runtime by configuring
    mod_status.  Note that other modules may
    rely on this scoreboard.

    This setting applies to the entire server and cannot be
    enabled or disabled on a virtualhost-by-virtualhost basis.
    The collection of extended status information can slow down
    the server.  Also note that this setting cannot be changed
    during a graceful restart.

    
    Note that loading mod_status will change
    the default behavior to ExtendedStatus On, while other
    third party modules may do the same.  Such modules rely on
    collecting detailed information about the state of all workers.
    The default is changed by mod_status beginning
    with version 2.3.6. The previous default was always Off.
    




FileETag Directive

Description:File attributes used to create the ETag
HTTP response header for static files
Syntax:FileETag component ...
Default:FileETag MTime Size
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:The default used to be "INode MTime Size" in 2.3.14 and
earlier.

    
    The FileETag directive configures the file
    attributes that are used to create the ETag (entity
    tag) response header field when the document is based on a static file.
    (The ETag value is used in cache management to save
    network bandwidth.) The
    FileETag directive allows you to choose
    which of these -- if any -- should be used. The recognized keywords are:
    

    
     INode
     The file's i-node number will be included in the calculation
     MTime
     The date and time the file was last modified will be included
     Size
     The number of bytes in the file will be included
     All
     All available fields will be used. This is equivalent to:
         FileETag INode MTime Size

     None
     If a document is file-based, no ETag field will be
       included in the response
    

    The INode, MTime, and Size
    keywords may be prefixed with either + or -,
    which allow changes to be made to the default setting inherited
    from a broader scope. Any keyword appearing without such a prefix
    immediately and completely cancels the inherited setting.

    If a directory's configuration includes
    FileETag INode MTime Size, and a
    subdirectory's includes FileETag -INode,
    the setting for that subdirectory (which will be inherited by
    any sub-subdirectories that don't override it) will be equivalent to
    FileETag MTime Size.
    Warning
    Do not change the default for directories or locations that have WebDAV
    enabled and use mod_dav_fs as a storage provider.
    mod_dav_fs uses MTime Size
    as a fixed format for ETag comparisons on conditional requests.
    These conditional requests will break if the ETag format is
    changed via FileETag.
    
    Server Side Includes
    An ETag is not generated for responses parsed by mod_include
    since the response entity can change without a change of the INode, MTime, or Size
    of the static file with embedded SSI directives.
    




<Files> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply to matched
filenames
Syntax:<Files filename> ... </Files>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <Files> directive
    limits the scope of the enclosed directives by filename. It is comparable
    to the <Directory>
    and <Location>
    directives. It should be matched with a </Files>
    directive. The directives given within this section will be applied to
    any object with a basename (last component of filename) matching the
    specified filename. <Files>
    sections are processed in the order they appear in the
    configuration file, after the <Directory> sections and
    .htaccess files are read, but before <Location> sections. Note
    that <Files> can be nested
    inside <Directory> sections to restrict the
    portion of the filesystem they apply to.

    The filename argument should include a filename, or
    a wild-card string, where ? matches any single character,
    and * matches any sequences of characters.
    <Files "cat.html">
    # Insert stuff that applies to cat.html here
</Files>

<Files "?at.*">
    # This would apply to cat.html, bat.html, hat.php and so on.
</Files>

    Regular expressions
    can also be used, with the addition of the
    ~ character. For example:

    <Files ~ "\.(gif|jpe?g|png)$">
    #...
</Files>


    would match most common Internet graphics formats. <FilesMatch> is preferred,
    however.

    Note that unlike <Directory> and <Location> sections, <Files> sections can be used inside
    .htaccess files. This allows users to control access to
    their own files, at a file-by-file level.


See also

How <Directory>, <Location>
    and <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received



<FilesMatch> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply to regular-expression matched
filenames
Syntax:<FilesMatch regex> ... </FilesMatch>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <FilesMatch> directive
    limits the scope of the enclosed directives by filename, just as the
    <Files> directive
    does. However, it accepts a regular
    expression. For example:

    <FilesMatch ".+\.(gif|jpe?g|png)$">
    # ...
</FilesMatch>


    would match most common Internet graphics formats.

    The .+ at the start of the regex ensures that
    files named .png, or .gif, for example,
    are not matched.

    From 2.4.8 onwards, named groups and backreferences are captured and
    written to the environment with the corresponding name prefixed with
    "MATCH_" and in upper case. This allows elements of files to be referenced
    from within expressions and modules like
    mod_rewrite. In order to prevent confusion, numbered
    (unnamed) backreferences are ignored. Use named groups instead.

    <FilesMatch "^(?<sitename>[^/]+)">
    require ldap-group cn=%{env:MATCH_SITENAME},ou=combined,o=Example
</FilesMatch>


See also

How <Directory>, <Location>
    and <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received



ForceType Directive

Description:Forces all matching files to be served with the specified
media type in the HTTP Content-Type header field
Syntax:ForceType media-type|None
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    When placed into an .htaccess file or a
    <Directory>, or
    <Location> or
    <Files>
    section, this directive forces all matching files to be served
    with the content type identification given by
    media-type. For example, if you had a directory full of
    GIF files, but did not want to label them all with .gif,
    you might want to use:

    ForceType image/gif


    Note that this directive overrides other indirect media type
    associations defined in mime.types or via the
    AddType.

    You can also override more general
    ForceType settings
    by using the value of None:

    # force all files to be image/gif:
<Location "/images">
  ForceType image/gif
</Location>

# but normal mime-type associations here:
<Location "/images/mixed">
  ForceType None
</Location>


    This directive primarily overrides the content types generated for
    static files served out of the filesystem.  For resources other than
    static files, where the generator of the response typically specifies
    a Content-Type, this directive has no effect.

    Note
    When explicit directives such as
    SetHandler or
    AddHandler do not apply
    to the current request, the internal handler name normally set by those
    directives is set to match the content type specified by this directive.
    This is a historical behavior that some third-party modules
    (such as mod_php) may use "magic" content types used only to signal the
    module to take responsibility for the matching request.  Configurations
    that rely on such "magic" types should be avoided by the use of
    SetHandler or
    AddHandler. 
    




GprofDir Directive

Description:Directory to write gmon.out profiling data to.  
Syntax:GprofDir /tmp/gprof/|/tmp/gprof/%
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    When the server has been compiled with gprof profiling support,
    GprofDir causes gmon.out files to
    be written to the specified directory when the process exits.  If the
    argument ends with a percent symbol ('%'), subdirectories are created
    for each process id.

    This directive currently only works with the prefork
    MPM.



HostnameLookups Directive

Description:Enables DNS lookups on client IP addresses
Syntax:HostnameLookups On|Off|Double
Default:HostnameLookups Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive enables DNS lookups so that host names can be
    logged (and passed to CGIs/SSIs in REMOTE_HOST).
    The value Double refers to doing double-reverse
    DNS lookup. That is, after a reverse lookup is performed, a forward
    lookup is then performed on that result. At least one of the IP
    addresses in the forward lookup must match the original
    address. (In "tcpwrappers" terminology this is called
    PARANOID.)

    Regardless of the setting, when mod_authz_host is
    used for controlling access by hostname, a double reverse lookup
    will be performed.  This is necessary for security. Note that the
    result of this double-reverse isn't generally available unless you
    set HostnameLookups Double. For example, if only
    HostnameLookups On and a request is made to an object
    that is protected by hostname restrictions, regardless of whether
    the double-reverse fails or not, CGIs will still be passed the
    single-reverse result in REMOTE_HOST.

    The default is Off in order to save the network
    traffic for those sites that don't truly need the reverse
    lookups done. It is also better for the end users because they
    don't have to suffer the extra latency that a lookup entails.
    Heavily loaded sites should leave this directive
    Off, since DNS lookups can take considerable
    amounts of time. The utility logresolve, compiled by
    default to the bin subdirectory of your installation
    directory, can be used to look up host names from logged IP addresses
    offline.

    Finally, if you have hostname-based Require
    directives, a hostname lookup will be performed regardless of
    the setting of HostnameLookups.



HttpProtocolOptions Directive

Description:Modify restrictions on HTTP Request Messages
Syntax:HttpProtocolOptions [Strict|Unsafe] [RegisteredMethods|LenientMethods]
 [Allow0.9|Require1.0]
Default:HttpProtocolOptions Strict LenientMethods Allow0.9
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:2.2.32 or 2.4.24 and later

    This directive changes the rules applied to the HTTP Request Line
    (RFC 7230 3.1.1) and the HTTP Request Header Fields
    (RFC 7230 3.2), which are now applied by default or using
    the Strict option. Due to legacy modules, applications or
    custom user-agents which must be deperecated the Unsafe
    option has been added to revert to the legacy behaviors. These rules
    are applied prior to request processing, so must be configured at the
    global or default (first) matching virtual host section, by IP/port
    interface (and not by name) to be honored.

    Prior to the introduction of this directive, the Apache HTTP Server
    request message parsers were tolerant of a number of forms of input
    which did not conform to the protocol.
    RFC 7230 9.4 Request Splitting and
    9.5 Response Smuggling call out only two of the potential
    risks of accepting non-conformant request messages, while
    RFC 7230 3.5 "Message Parsing Robustness" identify the
    risks of accepting obscure whitespace and request message formatting. 
    As of the introduction of this directive, all grammer rules of the
    specification are enforced in the default Strict operating
    mode, and the strict whitespace suggested by section 3.5 is enforced
    and cannot be relaxed.

    Users are strongly cautioned against toggling the Unsafe
    mode of operation, particularly on outward-facing, publicly accessible
    server deployments.  If an interface is required for faulty monitoring
    or other custom service consumers running on an intranet, users should
    toggle the Unsafe option only on a specific virtual host configured
    to service their internal private network.

    Reviewing the messages logged to the ErrorLog,
    configured with LogLevel debug level,
    can help identify such faulty requests along with their origin.
    Users should pay particular attention to the 400 responses in the access
    log for invalid requests which were unexpectedly rejected.

    RFC 7231 4.1 "Request Methods" "Overview" requires that
    origin servers shall respond with an error when an unsupported method
    is encountered in the request line. This already happens when the
    LenientMethods option is used, but administrators may wish
    to toggle the RegisteredMethods option and register any
    non-standard methods using the RegisterHttpMethod
    directive, particularly if the Unsafe option has been toggled.
    The RegisteredMethods option should not
    be toggled for forward proxy hosts, as the methods supported by the
    origin servers are unknown to the proxy server.

    RFC 2616 19.6 "Compatibility With Previous Versions" had
    encouraged HTTP servers to support legacy HTTP/0.9 requests. RFC 7230
    superceeds this with "The expectation to support HTTP/0.9 requests has
    been removed" and offers additional comments in 
    RFC 7230 Appendix A. The Require1.0 option allows
    the user to remove support of the default Allow0.9 option's
    behavior.



<If> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply only if a condition is
satisfied by a request at runtime
Syntax:<If expression> ... </If>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <If> directive
    evaluates an expression at runtime, and applies the enclosed
    directives if and only if the expression evaluates to true.
    For example:

    <If "-z req('Host')">


    would match HTTP/1.0 requests without a Host: header.
    Expressions may contain various shell-like operators for string
    comparison (==, !=, <, ...),
    integer comparison (-eq, -ne, ...),
    and others (-n, -z, -f, ...).
    It is also possible to use regular expressions, 

    <If "%{QUERY_STRING} =~ /(delete|commit)=.*?elem/">


    shell-like pattern matches and many other operations. These operations
    can be done on request headers (req), environment variables
    (env), and a large number of other properties. The full
    documentation is available in Expressions in
    Apache HTTP Server.

    Only directives that support the directory context can be used within this configuration section.

    
    Certain variables, such as CONTENT_TYPE and other
    response headers, are set after <If> conditions have already
    been evaluated, and so will not be available to use in this
    directive.
    


See also

Expressions in Apache HTTP Server,
for a complete reference and more examples.
<ElseIf>
<Else>
How <Directory>, <Location>,
    <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received.
    <If>,
    <ElseIf>, and
    <Else> are applied last.



<IfDefine> Directive

Description:Encloses directives that will be processed only
if a test is true at startup
Syntax:<IfDefine [!]parameter-name> ...
    </IfDefine>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <IfDefine test>...</IfDefine>
     section is used to mark directives that are conditional. The
    directives within an <IfDefine>
    section are only processed if the test is true. If 
    test is false, everything between the start and end markers is
    ignored.

    The test in the <IfDefine> section directive can be one of two forms:

    
      parameter-name

      !parameter-name
    

    In the former case, the directives between the start and end
    markers are only processed if the parameter named
    parameter-name is defined. The second format reverses
    the test, and only processes the directives if
    parameter-name is not defined.

    The parameter-name argument is a define as given on the
    httpd command line via -Dparameter
     at the time the server was started or by the Define directive.

    <IfDefine> sections are
    nest-able, which can be used to implement simple
    multiple-parameter tests. Example:

    httpd -DReverseProxy -DUseCache -DMemCache ...
    <IfDefine ReverseProxy>
  LoadModule proxy_module   modules/mod_proxy.so
  LoadModule proxy_http_module   modules/mod_proxy_http.so
  <IfDefine UseCache>
    LoadModule cache_module   modules/mod_cache.so
    <IfDefine MemCache>
      LoadModule mem_cache_module   modules/mod_mem_cache.so
    </IfDefine>
    <IfDefine !MemCache>
      LoadModule cache_disk_module   modules/mod_cache_disk.so
    </IfDefine>
  </IfDefine>
</IfDefine>




<IfModule> Directive

Description:Encloses directives that are processed conditional on the
presence or absence of a specific module
Syntax:<IfModule [!]module-file|module-identifier> ...
    </IfModule>
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Module identifiers are available in version 2.1 and
later.

    The <IfModule test>...</IfModule>
    section is used to mark directives that are conditional on the presence of
    a specific module. The directives within an <IfModule> section are only processed if the test
    is true. If test is false, everything between the start and
    end markers is ignored.

    The test in the <IfModule> section directive can be one of two forms:

    
      module

      !module
    

    In the former case, the directives between the start and end
    markers are only processed if the module named module
    is included in Apache httpd -- either compiled in or
    dynamically loaded using LoadModule. The second format reverses the test,
    and only processes the directives if module is
    not included.

    The module argument can be either the module identifier or
    the file name of the module, at the time it was compiled.  For example,
    rewrite_module is the identifier and
    mod_rewrite.c is the file name. If a module consists of
    several source files, use the name of the file containing the string
    STANDARD20_MODULE_STUFF.

    <IfModule> sections are
    nest-able, which can be used to implement simple multiple-module
    tests.

    This section should only be used if you need to have one
    configuration file that works whether or not a specific module
    is available. In normal operation, directives need not be
    placed in <IfModule>
    sections.



Include Directive

Description:Includes other configuration files from within
the server configuration files
Syntax:Include file-path|directory-path|wildcard
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Directory
wildcard matching available in 2.3.6 and later

    This directive allows inclusion of other configuration files
    from within the server configuration files.

    Shell-style (fnmatch()) wildcard characters can be used
    in the filename or directory parts of the path to include several files
    at once, in alphabetical order. In addition, if
    Include points to a directory, rather than a file,
    Apache httpd will read all files in that directory and any subdirectory.
    However, including entire directories is not recommended, because it is
    easy to accidentally leave temporary files in a directory that can cause
    httpd to fail. Instead, we encourage you to use the
    wildcard syntax shown below, to include files that match a particular
    pattern, such as *.conf, for example.

    The Include directive will
    fail with an error if a wildcard expression does not
    match any file. The IncludeOptional
    directive can be used if non-matching wildcards should be ignored.

    The file path specified may be an absolute path, or may be relative
    to the ServerRoot directory.

    Examples:

    Include /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.conf
Include /usr/local/apache2/conf/vhosts/*.conf


    Or, providing paths relative to your ServerRoot directory:

    Include conf/ssl.conf
Include conf/vhosts/*.conf


    Wildcards may be included in the directory or file portion of the
    path. This example will fail if there is no subdirectory in conf/vhosts
    that contains at least one *.conf file:

    Include conf/vhosts/*/*.conf


    Alternatively, the following command will just be ignored in case of
    missing files or directories:

    IncludeOptional conf/vhosts/*/*.conf



See also

IncludeOptional
apachectl



IncludeOptional Directive

Description:Includes other configuration files from within
the server configuration files
Syntax:IncludeOptional file-path|directory-path|wildcard
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in 2.3.6 and later

    This directive allows inclusion of other configuration files
    from within the server configuration files. It works identically to the
    Include directive, with the
    exception that if wildcards do not match any file or directory, the
    IncludeOptional directive will be
    silently ignored instead of causing an error.

See also

Include
apachectl



KeepAlive Directive

Description:Enables HTTP persistent connections
Syntax:KeepAlive On|Off
Default:KeepAlive On
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The Keep-Alive extension to HTTP/1.0 and the persistent
    connection feature of HTTP/1.1 provide long-lived HTTP sessions
    which allow multiple requests to be sent over the same TCP
    connection. In some cases this has been shown to result in an
    almost 50% speedup in latency times for HTML documents with
    many images. To enable Keep-Alive connections, set
    KeepAlive On.

    For HTTP/1.0 clients, Keep-Alive connections will only be
    used if they are specifically requested by a client. In
    addition, a Keep-Alive connection with an HTTP/1.0 client can
    only be used when the length of the content is known in
    advance. This implies that dynamic content such as CGI output,
    SSI pages, and server-generated directory listings will
    generally not use Keep-Alive connections to HTTP/1.0 clients.
    For HTTP/1.1 clients, persistent connections are the default
    unless otherwise specified. If the client requests it, chunked
    encoding will be used in order to send content of unknown
    length over persistent connections.

    When a client uses a Keep-Alive connection, it will be counted
    as a single "request" for the MaxConnectionsPerChild directive, regardless
    of how many requests are sent using the connection.

See also

MaxKeepAliveRequests



KeepAliveTimeout Directive

Description:Amount of time the server will wait for subsequent
requests on a persistent connection
Syntax:KeepAliveTimeout num[ms]
Default:KeepAliveTimeout 5
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The number of seconds Apache httpd will wait for a subsequent
    request before closing the connection. By adding a postfix of ms the
    timeout can be also set in milliseconds. Once a request has been
    received, the timeout value specified by the
    Timeout directive applies.

    Setting KeepAliveTimeout to a high value
    may cause performance problems in heavily loaded servers. The
    higher the timeout, the more server processes will be kept
    occupied waiting on connections with idle clients.

    If KeepAliveTimeout is not
    set for a name-based virtual host, the value of the first defined
    virtual host best matching the local IP and port will be used.



<Limit> Directive

Description:Restrict enclosed access controls to only certain HTTP
methods
Syntax:<Limit method [method] ... > ...
    </Limit>
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig, Limit
Status:Core
Module:core

    Access controls are normally effective for
    all access methods, and this is the usual
    desired behavior. In the general case, access control
    directives should not be placed within a
    <Limit> section.

    The purpose of the <Limit>
    directive is to restrict the effect of the access controls to the
    nominated HTTP methods. For all other methods, the access
    restrictions that are enclosed in the <Limit> bracket will have no
    effect. The following example applies the access control
    only to the methods POST, PUT, and
    DELETE, leaving all other methods unprotected:

    <Limit POST PUT DELETE>
  Require valid-user
</Limit>


    The method names listed can be one or more of: GET,
    POST, PUT, DELETE,
    CONNECT, OPTIONS,
    PATCH, PROPFIND, PROPPATCH,
    MKCOL, COPY, MOVE,
    LOCK, and UNLOCK. The method name is
    case-sensitive. If GET is used, it will also
    restrict HEAD requests. The TRACE method
    cannot be limited (see TraceEnable).

    A <LimitExcept> section should always be
    used in preference to a <Limit>
    section when restricting access, since a <LimitExcept> section provides protection
    against arbitrary methods.

    The <Limit> and
    <LimitExcept>
    directives may be nested.  In this case, each successive level of
    <Limit> or <LimitExcept> directives must
    further restrict the set of methods to which access controls apply.

    When using
    <Limit> or
    <LimitExcept> directives with
    the Require directive,
    note that the first Require
    to succeed authorizes the request, regardless of the presence of other
    Require directives.

    For example, given the following configuration, all users will
    be authorized for POST requests, and the
    Require group editors directive will be ignored
    in all cases:

    <LimitExcept GET>
  Require valid-user
</LimitExcept>
<Limit POST>
  Require group editors
</Limit>




<LimitExcept> Directive

Description:Restrict access controls to all HTTP methods
except the named ones
Syntax:<LimitExcept method [method] ... > ...
    </LimitExcept>
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig, Limit
Status:Core
Module:core

    <LimitExcept> and
    </LimitExcept> are used to enclose
    a group of access control directives which will then apply to any
    HTTP access method not listed in the arguments;
    i.e., it is the opposite of a <Limit> section and can be used to control
    both standard and nonstandard/unrecognized methods. See the
    documentation for <Limit> for more details.

    For example:

    <LimitExcept POST GET>
  Require valid-user
</LimitExcept>





LimitInternalRecursion Directive

Description:Determine maximum number of internal redirects and nested
subrequests
Syntax:LimitInternalRecursion number [number]
Default:LimitInternalRecursion 10
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    An internal redirect happens, for example, when using the Action directive, which internally
    redirects the original request to a CGI script. A subrequest is Apache httpd's
    mechanism to find out what would happen for some URI if it were requested.
    For example, mod_dir uses subrequests to look for the
    files listed in the DirectoryIndex
    directive.

    LimitInternalRecursion prevents the server
    from crashing when entering an infinite loop of internal redirects or
    subrequests. Such loops are usually caused by misconfigurations.

    The directive stores two different limits, which are evaluated on
    per-request basis. The first number is the maximum number of
    internal redirects that may follow each other. The second number
    determines how deeply subrequests may be nested. If you specify only one
    number, it will be assigned to both limits.

    LimitInternalRecursion 5




LimitRequestBody Directive

Description:Restricts the total size of the HTTP request body sent
from the client
Syntax:LimitRequestBody bytes
Default:LimitRequestBody 0
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive specifies the number of bytes from 0
    (meaning unlimited) to 2147483647 (2GB) that are allowed in a
    request body. See the note below for the limited applicability
    to proxy requests.

    The LimitRequestBody directive allows
    the user to set a limit on the allowed size of an HTTP request
    message body within the context in which the directive is given
    (server, per-directory, per-file or per-location). If the client
    request exceeds that limit, the server will return an error
    response instead of servicing the request. The size of a normal
    request message body will vary greatly depending on the nature of
    the resource and the methods allowed on that resource. CGI scripts
    typically use the message body for retrieving form information.
    Implementations of the PUT method will require
    a value at least as large as any representation that the server
    wishes to accept for that resource.

    This directive gives the server administrator greater
    control over abnormal client request behavior, which may be
    useful for avoiding some forms of denial-of-service
    attacks.

    If, for example, you are permitting file upload to a particular
    location and wish to limit the size of the uploaded file to 100K,
    you might use the following directive:

    LimitRequestBody 102400


    For a full description of how this directive is interpreted by
    proxy requests, see the mod_proxy documentation.
    




LimitRequestFields Directive

Description:Limits the number of HTTP request header fields that
will be accepted from the client
Syntax:LimitRequestFields number
Default:LimitRequestFields 100
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    Number is an integer from 0 (meaning unlimited) to
    32767. The default value is defined by the compile-time
    constant DEFAULT_LIMIT_REQUEST_FIELDS (100 as
    distributed).

    The LimitRequestFields directive allows
    the server administrator to modify the limit on the number of
    request header fields allowed in an HTTP request. A server needs
    this value to be larger than the number of fields that a normal
    client request might include. The number of request header fields
    used by a client rarely exceeds 20, but this may vary among
    different client implementations, often depending upon the extent
    to which a user has configured their browser to support detailed
    content negotiation. Optional HTTP extensions are often expressed
    using request header fields.

    This directive gives the server administrator greater
    control over abnormal client request behavior, which may be
    useful for avoiding some forms of denial-of-service attacks.
    The value should be increased if normal clients see an error
    response from the server that indicates too many fields were
    sent in the request.

    For example:

    LimitRequestFields 50


     Warning
      When name-based virtual hosting is used, the value for this
     directive is taken from the default (first-listed) virtual host for the
     local IP and port combination.
     




LimitRequestFieldSize Directive

Description:Limits the size of the HTTP request header allowed from the
client
Syntax:LimitRequestFieldSize bytes
Default:LimitRequestFieldSize 8190
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive specifies the number of bytes
    that will be allowed in an HTTP request header.

    The LimitRequestFieldSize directive
    allows the server administrator to set the limit
    on the allowed size of an HTTP request header field. A server
    needs this value to be large enough to hold any one header field
    from a normal client request. The size of a normal request header
    field will vary greatly among different client implementations,
    often depending upon the extent to which a user has configured
    their browser to support detailed content negotiation. SPNEGO
    authentication headers can be up to 12392 bytes.

    This directive gives the server administrator greater
    control over abnormal client request behavior, which may be
    useful for avoiding some forms of denial-of-service attacks.

    For example:

    LimitRequestFieldSize 4094


    Under normal conditions, the value should not be changed from
    the default.

    Warning
     When name-based virtual hosting is used, the value for this
    directive is taken from the default (first-listed) virtual host best
    matching the current IP address and port combination.
    



LimitRequestLine Directive

Description:Limit the size of the HTTP request line that will be accepted
from the client
Syntax:LimitRequestLine bytes
Default:LimitRequestLine 8190
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive sets the number of bytes that will be
    allowed on the HTTP request-line.

    The LimitRequestLine directive allows
    the server administrator to set the limit on the allowed size
    of a client's HTTP request-line. Since the request-line consists of the
    HTTP method, URI, and protocol version, the
    LimitRequestLine directive places a
    restriction on the length of a request-URI allowed for a request
    on the server. A server needs this value to be large enough to
    hold any of its resource names, including any information that
    might be passed in the query part of a GET request.

    This directive gives the server administrator greater
    control over abnormal client request behavior, which may be
    useful for avoiding some forms of denial-of-service attacks.

    For example:

    LimitRequestLine 4094


    Under normal conditions, the value should not be changed from
    the default.

    Warning
     When name-based virtual hosting is used, the value for this
    directive is taken from the default (first-listed) virtual host best
    matching the current IP address and port combination.
    




LimitXMLRequestBody Directive

Description:Limits the size of an XML-based request body
Syntax:LimitXMLRequestBody bytes
Default:LimitXMLRequestBody 1000000
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    Limit (in bytes) on maximum size of an XML-based request
    body. A value of 0 will disable any checking.

    Example:

    LimitXMLRequestBody 0





<Location> Directive

Description:Applies the enclosed directives only to matching
URLs
Syntax:<Location
    URL-path|URL> ... </Location>
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <Location> directive
    limits the scope of the enclosed directives by URL. It is similar to the
    <Directory>
    directive, and starts a subsection which is terminated with a
    </Location> directive. <Location> sections are processed in the
    order they appear in the configuration file, after the <Directory> sections and
    .htaccess files are read, and after the <Files> sections.

    <Location> sections operate
    completely outside the filesystem.  This has several consequences.
    Most importantly, <Location>
    directives should not be used to control access to filesystem
    locations.  Since several different URLs may map to the same
    filesystem location, such access controls may by circumvented.

    The enclosed directives will be applied to the request if the path component
    of the URL meets any of the following criteria:
    
    
      The specified location matches exactly the path component of the URL.
      
      The specified location, which ends in a forward slash, is a prefix
      of the path component of the URL (treated as a context root).
      
      The specified location, with the addition of a trailing slash, is a
      prefix of the path component of the URL (also treated as a context root).
      
    
    
    In the example below, where no trailing slash is used, requests to
    /private1, /private1/ and /private1/file.txt will have the enclosed
    directives applied, but /private1other would not.
    
    <Location "/private1">
    #  ...
</Location>

    
    In the example below, where a trailing slash is used, requests to
    /private2/ and /private2/file.txt will have the enclosed
    directives applied, but /private2 and /private2other would not.
    
    <Location "/private2/">
    # ...
</Location>


    When to use <Location>

    Use <Location> to apply
    directives to content that lives outside the filesystem.  For
    content that lives in the filesystem, use <Directory> and <Files>.  An exception is
    <Location "/">, which is an easy way to
    apply a configuration to the entire server.
    

    For all origin (non-proxy) requests, the URL to be matched is a
    URL-path of the form /path/.  No scheme, hostname,
    port, or query string may be included.  For proxy requests, the
    URL to be matched is of the form
    scheme://servername/path, and you must include the
    prefix.

    The URL may use wildcards. In a wild-card string, ? matches
    any single character, and * matches any sequences of
    characters. Neither wildcard character matches a / in the URL-path.

    Regular expressions
    can also be used, with the addition of the ~
    character. For example:

    <Location ~ "/(extra|special)/data">
    #...
</Location>


    would match URLs that contained the substring /extra/data
    or /special/data. The directive <LocationMatch> behaves
    identical to the regex version of <Location>, and is preferred, for the
    simple reason that ~ is hard to distinguish from
    - in many fonts.

    The <Location>
    functionality is especially useful when combined with the
    SetHandler
    directive. For example, to enable status requests but allow them
    only from browsers at example.com, you might use:

    <Location "/status">
  SetHandler server-status
  Require host example.com
</Location>


    Note about / (slash)
      The slash character has special meaning depending on where in a
      URL it appears. People may be used to its behavior in the filesystem
      where multiple adjacent slashes are frequently collapsed to a single
      slash (i.e., /home///foo is the same as
      /home/foo). In URL-space this is not necessarily true.
      The <LocationMatch>
      directive and the regex version of <Location> require you to explicitly specify multiple
      slashes if that is your intention.

      For example, <LocationMatch "^/abc"> would match
      the request URL /abc but not the request URL 
      //abc. The (non-regex) <Location> directive behaves similarly when used for
      proxy requests. But when (non-regex) <Location> is used for non-proxy requests it will
      implicitly match multiple slashes with a single slash. For example,
      if you specify <Location "/abc/def"> and the
      request is to /abc//def then it will match.
    

See also

How <Directory>, <Location>
    and <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received.
LocationMatch



<LocationMatch> Directive

Description:Applies the enclosed directives only to regular-expression
matching URLs
Syntax:<LocationMatch
    regex> ... </LocationMatch>
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The <LocationMatch> directive
    limits the scope of the enclosed directives by URL, in an identical manner
    to <Location>. However,
    it takes a regular expression
    as an argument instead of a simple string. For example:

    <LocationMatch "/(extra|special)/data">
    # ...
</LocationMatch>


    would match URLs that contained the substring /extra/data
    or /special/data.

    If the intent is that a URL starts with
    /extra/data, rather than merely
    contains /extra/data, prefix the
    regular expression with a ^ to require this.

    <LocationMatch "^/(extra|special)/data">

    

    From 2.4.8 onwards, named groups and backreferences are captured and
    written to the environment with the corresponding name prefixed with
    "MATCH_" and in upper case. This allows elements of URLs to be referenced
    from within expressions and modules like
    mod_rewrite. In order to prevent confusion, numbered
    (unnamed) backreferences are ignored. Use named groups instead.

    <LocationMatch "^/combined/(?<sitename>[^/]+)">
    require ldap-group cn=%{env:MATCH_SITENAME},ou=combined,o=Example
</LocationMatch>


See also

How <Directory>, <Location>
    and <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received



LogLevel Directive

Description:Controls the verbosity of the ErrorLog
Syntax:LogLevel [module:]level
    [module:level] ...

Default:LogLevel warn
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Per-module and per-directory configuration is available in
    Apache HTTP Server 2.3.6 and later

    LogLevel adjusts the verbosity of the
    messages recorded in the error logs (see ErrorLog directive). The following
    levels are available, in order of decreasing
    significance:

    
    
      
        Level 

        Description 

        Example 
      

      
        emerg 

        Emergencies - system is unusable.

        "Child cannot open lock file. Exiting"
      

      
        alert 

        Action must be taken immediately.

        "getpwuid: couldn't determine user name from uid"
      

      
        crit 

        Critical Conditions.

        "socket: Failed to get a socket, exiting child"
      

      
        error 

        Error conditions.

        "Premature end of script headers"
      

      
        warn 

        Warning conditions.

        "child process 1234 did not exit, sending another
        SIGHUP"
      

      
        notice 

        Normal but significant condition.

        "httpd: caught SIGBUS, attempting to dump core in
        ..."
      

      
        info 

        Informational.

        "Server seems busy, (you may need to increase
        StartServers, or Min/MaxSpareServers)..."
      

      
        debug 

        Debug-level messages

        "Opening config file ..."
      
      
        trace1 

        Trace messages

        "proxy: FTP: control connection complete"
      
      
        trace2 

        Trace messages

        "proxy: CONNECT: sending the CONNECT request to the remote proxy"
      
      
        trace3 

        Trace messages

        "openssl: Handshake: start"
      
      
        trace4 

        Trace messages

        "read from buffered SSL brigade, mode 0, 17 bytes"
      
      
        trace5 

        Trace messages

        "map lookup FAILED: map=rewritemap key=keyname"
      
      
        trace6 

        Trace messages

        "cache lookup FAILED, forcing new map lookup"
      
      
        trace7 

        Trace messages, dumping large amounts of data

        "| 0000: 02 23 44 30 13 40 ac 34 df 3d bf 9a 19 49 39 15 |"
      
      
        trace8 

        Trace messages, dumping large amounts of data

        "| 0000: 02 23 44 30 13 40 ac 34 df 3d bf 9a 19 49 39 15 |"
      
    

    When a particular level is specified, messages from all
    other levels of higher significance will be reported as well.
    E.g., when LogLevel info is specified,
    then messages with log levels of notice and
    warn will also be posted.

    Using a level of at least crit is
    recommended.

    For example:

    LogLevel notice


    Note
      When logging to a regular file, messages of the level
      notice cannot be suppressed and thus are always
      logged. However, this doesn't apply when logging is done
      using syslog.
    

    Specifying a level without a module name will reset the level
    for all modules to that level.  Specifying a level with a module
    name will set the level for that module only. It is possible to
    use the module source file name, the module identifier, or the
    module identifier with the trailing _module omitted
    as module specification. This means the following three specifications
    are equivalent:

    LogLevel info ssl:warn
LogLevel info mod_ssl.c:warn
LogLevel info ssl_module:warn


    It is also possible to change the level per directory:

    LogLevel info
<Directory "/usr/local/apache/htdocs/app">
  LogLevel debug
</Directory>


    
        Per directory loglevel configuration only affects messages that are
        logged after the request has been parsed and that are associated with
        the request. Log messages which are associated with the connection or
        the server are not affected.
    

See also

ErrorLog
ErrorLogFormat
Apache HTTP Server Log Files



MaxKeepAliveRequests Directive

Description:Number of requests allowed on a persistent
connection
Syntax:MaxKeepAliveRequests number
Default:MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The MaxKeepAliveRequests directive
    limits the number of requests allowed per connection when
    KeepAlive is on. If it is
    set to 0, unlimited requests will be allowed. We
    recommend that this setting be kept to a high value for maximum
    server performance.

    For example:

    MaxKeepAliveRequests 500




MaxRangeOverlaps Directive

Description:Number of overlapping ranges (eg: 100-200,150-300) allowed before returning the complete
        resource 
Syntax:MaxRangeOverlaps default | unlimited | none | number-of-ranges
Default:MaxRangeOverlaps 20
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.3.15 and later

        The MaxRangeOverlaps directive
            limits the number of overlapping HTTP ranges the server is willing to
            return to the client. If more overlapping ranges than permitted are requested,
            the complete resource is returned instead.

        
            default
            Limits the number of overlapping ranges to a compile-time default of 20.

            none
            No overlapping Range headers are allowed.

            unlimited
            The server does not limit the number of overlapping ranges it is
                willing to satisfy.

            number-of-ranges
            A positive number representing the maximum number of overlapping ranges the
                server is willing to satisfy.
        
    


MaxRangeReversals Directive

Description:Number of range reversals (eg: 100-200,50-70) allowed before returning the complete
        resource 
Syntax:MaxRangeReversals default | unlimited | none | number-of-ranges
Default:MaxRangeReversals 20
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.3.15 and later

        The MaxRangeReversals directive
            limits the number of HTTP Range reversals the server is willing to
            return to the client. If more ranges reversals than permitted are requested,
            the complete resource is returned instead.

        
            default
            Limits the number of range reversals to a compile-time default of 20.

            none
            No Range reversals headers are allowed.

            unlimited
            The server does not limit the number of range reversals it is
                willing to satisfy.

            number-of-ranges
            A positive number representing the maximum number of range reversals the
                server is willing to satisfy.
        
    


MaxRanges Directive

Description:Number of ranges allowed before returning the complete
resource 
Syntax:MaxRanges default | unlimited | none | number-of-ranges
Default:MaxRanges 200
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.3.15 and later

    The MaxRanges directive
    limits the number of HTTP ranges the server is willing to
    return to the client. If more ranges than permitted are requested,
    the complete resource is returned instead.

    
      default
      Limits the number of ranges to a compile-time default of 200.

      none
      Range headers are ignored.

      unlimited
      The server does not limit the number of ranges it is
          willing to satisfy.

      number-of-ranges
      A positive number representing the maximum number of ranges the
      server is willing to satisfy.
    



MergeTrailers Directive

Description:Determines whether trailers are merged into headers
Syntax:MergeTrailers [on|off]
Default:MergeTrailers off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:2.4.11 and later

    This directive controls whether HTTP trailers are copied into the
    internal representation of HTTP headers. This merging occurs when the
    request body has been completely consumed, long after most header
    processing would have a chance to examine or modify request headers.
    This option is provided for compatibility with releases prior to 2.4.11,
    where trailers were always merged.



Mutex Directive

Description:Configures mutex mechanism and lock file directory for all
or specified mutexes
Syntax:Mutex mechanism [default|mutex-name] ... [OmitPID]
Default:Mutex default
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.3.4 and later

    The Mutex directive sets the mechanism,
    and optionally the lock file location, that httpd and modules use
    to serialize access to resources.  Specify default as
    the second argument to change the settings for all mutexes; specify
    a mutex name (see table below) as the second argument to override
    defaults only for that mutex.

    The Mutex directive is typically used in
    the following exceptional situations:

    
        change the mutex mechanism when the default mechanism selected
        by APR has a functional or performance
        problem

        change the directory used by file-based mutexes when the
        default directory does not support locking
    

    Supported modules
    This directive only configures mutexes which have been registered
    with the core server using the ap_mutex_register() API.
    All modules bundled with httpd support the Mutex
    directive, but third-party modules may not.  Consult the documentation
    of the third-party module, which must indicate the mutex name(s) which
    can be configured if this directive is supported.
    

    The following mutex mechanisms are available:
    
        default | yes
        This selects the default locking implementation, as determined by
        APR.  The default locking implementation can
        be displayed by running httpd with the
        -V option.

        none | no
        This effectively disables the mutex, and is only allowed for a
        mutex if the module indicates that it is a valid choice.  Consult the
        module documentation for more information.

        posixsem
        This is a mutex variant based on a Posix semaphore.

        Warning
        The semaphore ownership is not recovered if a thread in the process
        holding the mutex segfaults, resulting in a hang of the web server.
        
        

        sysvsem
        This is a mutex variant based on a SystemV IPC semaphore.

        Warning
        It is possible to "leak" SysV semaphores if processes crash
        before the semaphore is removed.
	

        Security
        The semaphore API allows for a denial of service attack by any
        CGIs running under the same uid as the webserver (i.e.,
        all CGIs, unless you use something like suexec
        or cgiwrapper).
	
        

        sem
        This selects the "best" available semaphore implementation, choosing
        between Posix and SystemV IPC semaphores, in that order.

        pthread
        This is a mutex variant based on cross-process Posix thread
        mutexes.

        Warning
        On most systems, if a child process terminates abnormally while
        holding a mutex that uses this implementation, the server will deadlock
        and stop responding to requests.  When this occurs, the server will
        require a manual restart to recover.
        Solaris and Linux are notable exceptions as they provide a mechanism which
        usually allows the mutex to be recovered after a child process
        terminates abnormally while holding a mutex.
        If your system is POSIX compliant or if it implements the
        pthread_mutexattr_setrobust_np() function, you may be able
        to use the pthread option safely.
        
        

        fcntl:/path/to/mutex
        This is a mutex variant where a physical (lock-)file and the
        fcntl() function are used as the mutex.

        Warning
        When multiple mutexes based on this mechanism are used within
        multi-threaded, multi-process environments, deadlock errors (EDEADLK)
        can be reported for valid mutex operations if fcntl()
        is not thread-aware, such as on Solaris.
	
        

        flock:/path/to/mutex
        This is similar to the fcntl:/path/to/mutex method
        with the exception that the flock() function is used to
        provide file locking.

        file:/path/to/mutex
        This selects the "best" available file locking implementation,
        choosing between fcntl and flock, in that
        order.
    

    Most mechanisms are only available on selected platforms, where the
    underlying platform and APR support it.  Mechanisms
    which aren't available on all platforms are posixsem,
    sysvsem, sem, pthread, fcntl,
    flock, and file.

    With the file-based mechanisms fcntl and flock,
    the path, if provided, is a directory where the lock file will be created.
    The default directory is httpd's run-time file directory relative to
    ServerRoot.  Always use a local disk
    filesystem for /path/to/mutex and never a directory residing
    on a NFS- or AFS-filesystem.  The basename of the file will be the mutex
    type, an optional instance string provided by the module, and unless the
    OmitPID keyword is specified, the process id of the httpd
    parent process will be appended to make the file name unique, avoiding
    conflicts when multiple httpd instances share a lock file directory.  For
    example, if the mutex name is mpm-accept and the lock file
    directory is /var/httpd/locks, the lock file name for the
    httpd instance with parent process id 12345 would be
    /var/httpd/locks/mpm-accept.12345.

    Security
    It is best to avoid putting mutex files in a world-writable
    directory such as /var/tmp because someone could create
    a denial of service attack and prevent the server from starting by
    creating a lockfile with the same name as the one the server will try
    to create.
    

    The following table documents the names of mutexes used by httpd
    and bundled modules.

    
            Mutex name
            Module(s)
            Protected resource
	

            mpm-accept
            prefork and worker MPMs
            incoming connections, to avoid the thundering herd problem;
            for more information, refer to the
            performance tuning
            documentation
	

            authdigest-client
            mod_auth_digest
            client list in shared memory
	

            authdigest-opaque
            mod_auth_digest
            counter in shared memory
	

            ldap-cache
            mod_ldap
            LDAP result cache
	

            rewrite-map
            mod_rewrite
            communication with external mapping programs, to avoid
            intermixed I/O from multiple requests
	

            ssl-cache
            mod_ssl
            SSL session cache
	

            ssl-stapling
            mod_ssl
            OCSP stapling response cache
	

            watchdog-callback
            mod_watchdog
            callback function of a particular client module
	


    The OmitPID keyword suppresses the addition of the httpd
    parent process id from the lock file name.

    In the following example, the mutex mechanism for the MPM accept
    mutex will be changed from the compiled-in default to fcntl,
    with the associated lock file created in directory
    /var/httpd/locks.  The mutex mechanism for all other mutexes
    will be changed from the compiled-in default to sysvsem.

    Mutex sysvsem default
Mutex fcntl:/var/httpd/locks mpm-accept




NameVirtualHost Directive

Description:DEPRECATED: Designates an IP address for name-virtual
hosting
Syntax:NameVirtualHost addr[:port]
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core


Prior to 2.3.11, NameVirtualHost was required
to instruct the server that a particular IP address and port combination
was usable as a name-based virtual host.  In 2.3.11 and later,
any time an IP address and port combination is used in multiple virtual
hosts, name-based virtual hosting is automatically enabled for that address.

This directive currently has no effect.

See also

Virtual Hosts
documentation



Options Directive

Description:Configures what features are available in a particular
directory
Syntax:Options
    [+|-]option [[+|-]option] ...
Default:Options FollowSymlinks
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:Options
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:The default was changed from All to FollowSymlinks in 2.3.11

    The Options directive controls which
    server features are available in a particular directory.

    option can be set to None, in which
    case none of the extra features are enabled, or one or more of
    the following:

    
      All

      All options except for MultiViews.

      ExecCGI

      
      Execution of CGI scripts using mod_cgi
      is permitted.

      FollowSymLinks

      
      The server will follow symbolic links in this directory. This is
      the default setting.
      
      Even though the server follows the symlink it does not
      change the pathname used to match against <Directory> sections.

      The FollowSymLinks and
      SymLinksIfOwnerMatch Options work only in <Directory> sections or
      .htaccess files.

      Omitting this option should not be considered a security restriction,
      since symlink testing is subject to race conditions that make it
      circumventable.
      

      Includes

      
      Server-side includes provided by mod_include
      are permitted.

      IncludesNOEXEC

      

      Server-side includes are permitted, but the #exec
      cmd and #exec cgi are disabled. It is still
      possible to #include virtual CGI scripts from
      ScriptAliased
      directories.

      Indexes

      
      If a URL which maps to a directory is requested and there
      is no DirectoryIndex
      (e.g., index.html) in that directory, then
      mod_autoindex will return a formatted listing
      of the directory.

      MultiViews

      
      Content negotiated
      "MultiViews" are allowed using
      mod_negotiation.
      Note This option gets ignored if set
      anywhere other than <Directory>, as mod_negotiation
      needs real resources to compare against and evaluate from.
      

      SymLinksIfOwnerMatch

      The server will only follow symbolic links for which the
      target file or directory is owned by the same user id as the
      link.

      Note
      The FollowSymLinks and
      SymLinksIfOwnerMatch Options work only in <Directory> sections or
      .htaccess files.

      This option should not be considered a security restriction,
      since symlink testing is subject to race conditions that make it
      circumventable.
       
    

    Normally, if multiple Options could
    apply to a directory, then the most specific one is used and
    others are ignored; the options are not merged. (See how sections are merged.)
    However if all the options on the
    Options directive are preceded by a
    + or - symbol, the options are
    merged. Any options preceded by a + are added to the
    options currently in force, and any options preceded by a
    - are removed from the options currently in
    force. 

    Note
    Mixing Options with a + or
    - with those without is not valid syntax and will be
    rejected during server startup by the syntax check with an abort.
    

    For example, without any + and - symbols:

    <Directory "/web/docs">
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
</Directory>

<Directory "/web/docs/spec">
  Options Includes
</Directory>


    then only Includes will be set for the
    /web/docs/spec directory. However if the second
    Options directive uses the + and
    - symbols:

    <Directory "/web/docs">
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
</Directory>

<Directory "/web/docs/spec">
  Options +Includes -Indexes
</Directory>


    then the options FollowSymLinks and
    Includes are set for the /web/docs/spec
    directory.

    Note
      Using -IncludesNOEXEC or
      -Includes disables server-side includes completely
      regardless of the previous setting.
    

    The default in the absence of any other settings is
    FollowSymlinks.



Protocol Directive

Description:Protocol for a listening socket
Syntax:Protocol protocol
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.1.5 and later.
On Windows, from Apache 2.3.3 and later.

    This directive specifies the protocol used for a specific listening socket.
       The protocol is used to determine which module should handle a request and
       to apply protocol specific optimizations with the AcceptFilter
       directive.

    You only need to set the protocol if you are running on non-standard ports;
       otherwise, http is assumed for port 80 and https
       for port 443.

    For example, if you are running https on a non-standard port,
       specify the protocol explicitly:

    Protocol https


    You can also specify the protocol using the Listen directive.

See also

AcceptFilter
Listen



Protocols Directive

Description:Protocols available for a server/virtual host
Syntax:Protocols protocol ...
Default:Protocols http/1.1
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Only available from Apache 2.4.17 and later.

        This directive specifies the list of protocols supported for a
            server/virtual host. The list determines the allowed protocols
            a client may negotiate for this server/host.
        
        You need to set protocols if you want to extend the available
            protocols for a server/host. By default, only the http/1.1 protocol
            (which includes the compatibility with 1.0 and 0.9 clients) is
            allowed.
        
        For example, if you want to support HTTP/2 for a server with TLS, 
            specify:
        
        Protocols h2 http/1.1


        Valid protocols are http/1.1 for http and https connections,
            h2 on https connections and h2c for http
            connections. Modules may enable more protocols.
        
        It is safe to specify protocols that are unavailable/disabled. Such
        protocol names will simply be ignored.
        
        Protocols specified in base servers are inherited for virtual hosts 
            only if the virtual host has no own Protocols directive. Or, the other
            way around, Protocols directives in virtual hosts replace any
            such directive in the base server.
        

    
See also

ProtocolsHonorOrder



ProtocolsHonorOrder Directive

Description:Determines if order of Protocols determines precedence during negotiation
Syntax:ProtocolsHonorOrder On|Off
Default:ProtocolsHonorOrder On
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Only available from Apache 2.4.17 and later.

        This directive specifies if the server should honor the order in which
        the Protocols directive lists protocols.
        
        If configured Off, the client supplied list order of protocols has 
            precedence over the order in the server configuration.
        
        With ProtocolsHonorOrder set to on 
            (default), the client ordering does not matter and only the ordering 
            in the server settings influences the outcome of the protocol 
            negotiation.
        
    
See also

Protocols



QualifyRedirectURL Directive

Description:Controls whether the REDIRECT_URL environment variable is
             fully qualified
Syntax:QualifyRedirectURL ON|OFF
Default:QualifyRedirectURL OFF
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Directive supported in 2.4.18 and later. 2.4.17 acted
as if 'QualifyRedirectURL ON' was configured.

    This directive controls whether the server will ensure that the 
    REDIRECT_URL environment variable is fully qualified.  By default, 
    the variable contains the verbatim URL requested by the client, 
    such as "/index.html".  With QualifyRedirectURL ON, the same request would result in a
    value such as "http://www.example.com/index.html".
    Even without this directive set, when a request is issued against a 
    fully qualified URL, REDIRECT_URL will remain fully qualified.
    



RegisterHttpMethod Directive

Description:Register non-standard HTTP methods
Syntax:RegisterHttpMethod method [method [...]]
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

HTTP Methods that are not conforming to the relvant RFCs are normally
rejected by request processing in Apache HTTPD. To avoid this, modules
can register non-standard HTTP methods they support.
The RegisterHttpMethod allows to register such
methods manually. This can be useful for if such methods are forwared
for external processing, e.g. to a CGI script.



RLimitCPU Directive

Description:Limits the CPU consumption of processes launched
by Apache httpd children
Syntax:RLimitCPU seconds|max [seconds|max]
Default:Unset; uses operating system defaults
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    Takes 1 or 2 parameters. The first parameter sets the soft
    resource limit for all processes and the second parameter sets
    the maximum resource limit. Either parameter can be a number,
    or max to indicate to the server that the limit should
    be set to the maximum allowed by the operating system
    configuration. Raising the maximum resource limit requires that
    the server is running as root or in the initial startup
    phase.

    This applies to processes forked from Apache httpd children
    servicing requests, not the Apache httpd children themselves. This
    includes CGI scripts and SSI exec commands, but not any
    processes forked from the Apache httpd parent, such as piped
    logs.

    CPU resource limits are expressed in seconds per
    process.

See also

RLimitMEM
RLimitNPROC



RLimitMEM Directive

Description:Limits the memory consumption of processes launched
by Apache httpd children
Syntax:RLimitMEM bytes|max [bytes|max]
Default:Unset; uses operating system defaults
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    Takes 1 or 2 parameters. The first parameter sets the soft
    resource limit for all processes and the second parameter sets
    the maximum resource limit. Either parameter can be a number,
    or max to indicate to the server that the limit should
    be set to the maximum allowed by the operating system
    configuration. Raising the maximum resource limit requires that
    the server is running as root or in the initial startup
    phase.

    This applies to processes forked from Apache httpd children
    servicing requests, not the Apache httpd children themselves. This
    includes CGI scripts and SSI exec commands, but not any
    processes forked from the Apache httpd parent, such as piped
    logs.

    Memory resource limits are expressed in bytes per
    process.

See also

RLimitCPU
RLimitNPROC



RLimitNPROC Directive

Description:Limits the number of processes that can be launched by
processes launched by Apache httpd children
Syntax:RLimitNPROC number|max [number|max]
Default:Unset; uses operating system defaults
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    Takes 1 or 2 parameters. The first parameter sets the soft
    resource limit for all processes, and the second parameter sets
    the maximum resource limit. Either parameter can be a number,
    or max to indicate to the server that the limit
    should be set to the maximum allowed by the operating system
    configuration. Raising the maximum resource limit requires that
    the server is running as root or in the initial startup
    phase.

    This applies to processes forked from Apache httpd children
    servicing requests, not the Apache httpd children themselves. This
    includes CGI scripts and SSI exec commands, but not any
    processes forked from the Apache httpd parent, such as piped
    logs.

    Process limits control the number of processes per user.

    Note
      If CGI processes are not running
      under user ids other than the web server user id, this directive
      will limit the number of processes that the server itself can
      create. Evidence of this situation will be indicated by
      cannot fork messages in the
      error_log.
    

See also

RLimitMEM
RLimitCPU



ScriptInterpreterSource Directive

Description:Technique for locating the interpreter for CGI
scripts
Syntax:ScriptInterpreterSource Registry|Registry-Strict|Script
Default:ScriptInterpreterSource Script
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Win32 only.

    This directive is used to control how Apache httpd finds the
    interpreter used to run CGI scripts. The default setting is
    Script. This causes Apache httpd to use the interpreter pointed to
    by the shebang line (first line, starting with #!) in the
    script. On Win32 systems this line usually looks like:

    #!C:/Perl/bin/perl.exe


    or, if perl is in the PATH, simply:

    #!perl


    Setting ScriptInterpreterSource Registry will
    cause the Windows Registry tree HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT to be
    searched using the script file extension (e.g., .pl) as a
    search key. The command defined by the registry subkey
    Shell\ExecCGI\Command or, if it does not exist, by the subkey
    Shell\Open\Command is used to open the script file. If the
    registry keys cannot be found, Apache httpd falls back to the behavior of the
    Script option.

    Security
    Be careful when using ScriptInterpreterSource
    Registry with ScriptAlias'ed directories, because
    Apache httpd will try to execute every file within this
    directory. The Registry setting may cause undesired
    program calls on files which are typically not executed. For
    example, the default open command on .htm files on
    most Windows systems will execute Microsoft Internet Explorer, so
    any HTTP request for an .htm file existing within the
    script directory would start the browser in the background on the
    server. This is a good way to crash your system within a minute or
    so.
    

    The option Registry-Strict which is new in Apache HTTP Server
    2.0 does the same thing as Registry but uses only the
    subkey Shell\ExecCGI\Command. The
    ExecCGI key is not a common one. It must be
    configured manually in the windows registry and hence prevents
    accidental program calls on your system.



SeeRequestTail Directive

Description:Determine if mod_status displays the first 63 characters
of a request or the last 63, assuming the request itself is greater than
63 chars.
Syntax:SeeRequestTail On|Off
Default:SeeRequestTail Off
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:Available in Apache httpd 2.2.7 and later.

    mod_status with ExtendedStatus On
    displays the actual request being handled.
    For historical purposes, only 63 characters of the request
    are actually stored for display purposes. This directive
    controls whether the 1st 63 characters are stored (the previous
    behavior and the default) or if the last 63 characters are. This
    is only applicable, of course, if the length of the request is
    64 characters or greater.

    If Apache httpd is handling GET /disk1/storage/apache/htdocs/images/imagestore1/food/apples.jpg HTTP/1.1 mod_status displays as follows:
    

    
      
        Off (default)
        GET /disk1/storage/apache/htdocs/images/imagestore1/food/apples
      
      
        On
        orage/apache/htdocs/images/imagestore1/food/apples.jpg HTTP/1.1
      
    




ServerAdmin Directive

Description:Email address that the server includes in error
messages sent to the client
Syntax:ServerAdmin email-address|URL
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerAdmin sets the contact address
    that the server includes in any error messages it returns to the
    client. If the httpd doesn't recognize the supplied argument
    as an URL, it
    assumes, that it's an email-address and prepends it with
    mailto: in hyperlink targets. However, it's recommended to
    actually use an email address, since there are a lot of CGI scripts that
    make that assumption. If you want to use an URL, it should point to another
    server under your control. Otherwise users may not be able to contact you in
    case of errors.

    It may be worth setting up a dedicated address for this, e.g.

    ServerAdmin www-admin@foo.example.com

    as users do not always mention that they are talking about the
    server!



ServerAlias Directive

Description:Alternate names for a host used when matching requests
to name-virtual hosts
Syntax:ServerAlias hostname [hostname] ...
Context:virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerAlias directive sets the
    alternate names for a host, for use with name-based virtual hosts. The
    ServerAlias may include wildcards, if appropriate.

    <VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerName server.example.com
  ServerAlias server server2.example.com server2
  ServerAlias *.example.com
  UseCanonicalName Off
  # ...
</VirtualHost>


    Name-based virtual hosts for the best-matching set of  <virtualhost>s are processed
    in the order they appear in the configuration.  The first matching ServerName or ServerAlias is used, with no different precedence for wildcards
    (nor for ServerName vs. ServerAlias).  

    The complete list of names in the <VirtualHost>
    directive are treated just like a (non wildcard)
    ServerAlias.


See also

UseCanonicalName
Apache HTTP Server Virtual Host documentation



ServerName Directive

Description:Hostname and port that the server uses to identify
itself
Syntax:ServerName [scheme://]domain-name|ip-address[:port]
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerName directive sets the
    request scheme, hostname and port that the server uses to identify itself.
    

    ServerName is used (possibly
    in conjunction with ServerAlias) to uniquely
    identify a virtual host, when using name-based virtual hosts.

    Additionally, this is used when
    creating self-referential redirection URLs when 
    UseCanonicalName is set to a non-default
    value.

    For example, if the name of the
    machine hosting the web server is simple.example.com,
    but the machine also has the DNS alias www.example.com
    and you wish the web server to be so identified, the following
    directive should be used:

    ServerName www.example.com


    The ServerName directive
    may appear anywhere within the definition of a server. However,
    each appearance overrides the previous appearance (within that
    server).

    If no ServerName is specified, the
    server attempts to deduce the client visible hostname by first asking 
    the operating system for the system hostname, and if that fails, 
    performing a reverse lookup on an IP address present on the system.

    If no port is specified in the
    ServerName, then the server will use the
    port from the incoming request. For optimal reliability and
    predictability, you should specify an explicit hostname and port
    using the ServerName directive.

    If you are using name-based virtual hosts,
    the ServerName inside a
    <VirtualHost>
    section specifies what hostname must appear in the request's
    Host: header to match this virtual host.

    Sometimes, the server runs behind a device that processes SSL,
    such as a reverse proxy, load balancer or SSL offload
    appliance. When this is the case, specify the
    https:// scheme and the port number to which the
    clients connect in the ServerName directive
    to make sure that the server generates the correct
    self-referential URLs.
    

    See the description of the
    UseCanonicalName and
    UseCanonicalPhysicalPort directives for
    settings which determine whether self-referential URLs (e.g., by the
    mod_dir module) will refer to the
    specified port, or to the port number given in the client's request.
    

    
    Failure to set ServerName to a name that
    your server can resolve to an IP address will result in a startup
    warning. httpd will then use whatever hostname it can
    determine, using the system's hostname command. This
    will almost never be the hostname you actually want.
    
    httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using rocinante.local for ServerName
    
    


See also

Issues Regarding DNS and
    Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server virtual host
    documentation
UseCanonicalName
UseCanonicalPhysicalPort
ServerAlias



ServerPath Directive

Description:Legacy URL pathname for a name-based virtual host that
is accessed by an incompatible browser
Syntax:ServerPath URL-path
Context:virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerPath directive sets the legacy
    URL pathname for a host, for use with name-based virtual hosts.

See also

Apache HTTP Server Virtual Host documentation



ServerRoot Directive

Description:Base directory for the server installation
Syntax:ServerRoot directory-path
Default:ServerRoot /usr/local/apache
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerRoot directive sets the
    directory in which the server lives. Typically it will contain the
    subdirectories conf/ and logs/. Relative
    paths in other configuration directives (such as Include or LoadModule, for example) are taken as
    relative to this directory.

    ServerRoot "/home/httpd"


    The default location of ServerRoot may be
    modified by using the --prefix argument to
    configure, and
    most third-party distributions of the server have a different
    default location from the one listed above.


See also

the -d
    option to httpd
the
    security tips for information on how to properly set
    permissions on the ServerRoot



ServerSignature Directive

Description:Configures the footer on server-generated documents
Syntax:ServerSignature On|Off|EMail
Default:ServerSignature Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:All
Status:Core
Module:core

    The ServerSignature directive allows the
    configuration of a trailing footer line under server-generated
    documents (error messages, mod_proxy ftp directory
    listings, mod_info output, ...). The reason why you
    would want to enable such a footer line is that in a chain of proxies,
    the user often has no possibility to tell which of the chained servers
    actually produced a returned error message.

    The Off
    setting, which is the default, suppresses the footer line (and is
    therefore compatible with the behavior of Apache-1.2 and
    below). The On setting simply adds a line with the
    server version number and ServerName of the serving virtual host,
    and the EMail setting additionally creates a
    "mailto:" reference to the ServerAdmin of the referenced
    document.

    After version 2.0.44, the details of the server version number
    presented are controlled by the ServerTokens directive.

See also

ServerTokens



ServerTokens Directive

Description:Configures the Server HTTP response
header
Syntax:ServerTokens Major|Minor|Min[imal]|Prod[uctOnly]|OS|Full
Default:ServerTokens Full
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive controls whether Server response
    header field which is sent back to clients includes a
    description of the generic OS-type of the server as well as
    information about compiled-in modules.

    
      ServerTokens Full (or not specified)

      Server sends (e.g.): Server: Apache/2.4.2
      (Unix) PHP/4.2.2 MyMod/1.2

      ServerTokens Prod[uctOnly]

      Server sends (e.g.): Server:
      Apache

      ServerTokens Major

      Server sends (e.g.): Server:
      Apache/2

      ServerTokens Minor

      Server sends (e.g.): Server:
      Apache/2.4

      ServerTokens Min[imal]

      Server sends (e.g.): Server:
      Apache/2.4.2

      ServerTokens OS

      Server sends (e.g.): Server: Apache/2.4.2
      (Unix)

    

    This setting applies to the entire server, and cannot be
    enabled or disabled on a virtualhost-by-virtualhost basis.

    After version 2.0.44, this directive also controls the
    information presented by the ServerSignature directive.

    Setting ServerTokens to less than
    minimal is not recommended because it makes it more
    difficult to debug interoperational problems. Also note that
    disabling the Server: header does nothing at all to make your
    server more secure. The idea of "security through obscurity"
    is a myth and leads to a false sense of safety.


See also

ServerSignature



SetHandler Directive

Description:Forces all matching files to be processed by a
handler
Syntax:SetHandler handler-name|none|expression
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core
Compatibility:expression argument 2.4.19 and later

    When placed into an .htaccess file or a
    <Directory> or
    <Location>
    section, this directive forces all matching files to be parsed
    through the handler given by
    handler-name. For example, if you had a directory you
    wanted to be parsed entirely as imagemap rule files, regardless
    of extension, you might put the following into an
    .htaccess file in that directory:

    SetHandler imap-file


    Another example: if you wanted to have the server display a
    status report whenever a URL of
    http://servername/status was called, you might put
    the following into httpd.conf:

    <Location "/status">
  SetHandler server-status
</Location>


    You could also use this directive to configure a particular
    handler for files with a particular file extension. For example:

    <FilesMatch "\.php$">
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
</FilesMatch>


    String-valued expressions can be used to reference per-request 
    variables, including backreferences to named regular expressions:

    <LocationMatch ^/app/(?<sub>[^/]+)/>
     SetHandler "proxy:unix:/var/run/app_%{env:MATCH_sub}.sock|fcgi://localhost:8080"
</LocationMatch>


    You can override an earlier defined SetHandler
    directive by using the value None.

    Note
    Because SetHandler overrides default handlers,
    normal behavior such as handling of URLs ending in a slash (/) as
    directories or index files is suppressed.

See also

AddHandler



SetInputFilter Directive

Description:Sets the filters that will process client requests and POST
input
Syntax:SetInputFilter filter[;filter...]
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    The SetInputFilter directive sets the
    filter or filters which will process client requests and POST
    input when they are received by the server. This is in addition to
    any filters defined elsewhere, including the
    AddInputFilter
    directive.

    If more than one filter is specified, they must be separated
    by semicolons in the order in which they should process the
    content.

See also

Filters documentation



SetOutputFilter Directive

Description:Sets the filters that will process responses from the
server
Syntax:SetOutputFilter filter[;filter...]
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:FileInfo
Status:Core
Module:core

    The SetOutputFilter directive sets the filters
    which will process responses from the server before they are
    sent to the client. This is in addition to any filters defined
    elsewhere, including the
    AddOutputFilter
    directive.

    For example, the following configuration will process all files
    in the /www/data/ directory for server-side
    includes.

    <Directory "/www/data/">
  SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
</Directory>


    If more than one filter is specified, they must be separated
    by semicolons in the order in which they should process the
    content.

See also

Filters documentation



TimeOut Directive

Description:Amount of time the server will wait for
certain events before failing a request
Syntax:TimeOut seconds
Default:TimeOut 60
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    The TimeOut directive defines the length
    of time Apache httpd will wait for I/O in various circumstances:

    
      When reading data from the client, the length of time to
      wait for a TCP packet to arrive if the read buffer is
      empty.
       For initial data on a new connection, this directive doesn't
      take effect until after any configured 
      AcceptFilter has passed the new connection to the server.
      

      When writing data to the client, the length of time to wait
      for an acknowledgement of a packet if the send buffer is
      full.

      In mod_cgi, the length of time to wait for
      output from a CGI script.

      In mod_ext_filter, the length of time to
      wait for output from a filtering process.

      In mod_proxy, the default timeout value if
      ProxyTimeout is not
      configured.
    




TraceEnable Directive

Description:Determines the behavior on TRACE requests
Syntax:TraceEnable [on|off|extended]
Default:TraceEnable on
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Core
Module:core

    This directive overrides the behavior of TRACE for both
    the core server and mod_proxy.  The default
    TraceEnable on permits TRACE requests per
    RFC 2616, which disallows any request body to accompany the request.
    TraceEnable off causes the core server and
    mod_proxy to return a 405 (Method not
    allowed) error to the client.

    Finally, for testing and diagnostic purposes only, request
    bodies may be allowed using the non-compliant TraceEnable
    extended directive.  The core (as an origin server) will
    restrict the request body to 64Kb (plus 8Kb for chunk headers if
    Transfer-Encoding: chunked is used).  The core will
    reflect the full headers and all chunk headers with the response
    body.  As a proxy server, the request body is not restricted to 64Kb.

    Note

    Despite claims to the contrary, enabling the TRACE
    method does not expose any security vulnerability in Apache httpd.
    The TRACE method is defined by the HTTP/1.1
    specification and implementations are expected to support it.
    
    



UnDefine Directive

Description:Undefine the existence of a variable
Syntax:UnDefine parameter-name
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    Undoes the effect of a Define or
    of passing a -D argument to httpd.
    This directive can be used to toggle the use of <IfDefine> sections without needing to alter
    -D arguments in any startup scripts.
    While this directive is supported in virtual host context,
       the changes it makes are visible to any later configuration
       directives, beyond any enclosing virtual host.



UseCanonicalName Directive

Description:Configures how the server determines its own name and
port
Syntax:UseCanonicalName On|Off|DNS
Default:UseCanonicalName Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    In many situations Apache httpd must construct a self-referential
    URL -- that is, a URL that refers back to the same server. With
    UseCanonicalName On Apache httpd will use the hostname and port
    specified in the ServerName
    directive to construct the canonical name for the server. This name
    is used in all self-referential URLs, and for the values of
    SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT in CGIs.

    With UseCanonicalName Off Apache httpd will form
    self-referential URLs using the hostname and port supplied by
    the client if any are supplied (otherwise it will use the
    canonical name, as defined above). These values are the same
    that are used to implement name-based virtual hosts
    and are available with the same clients. The CGI variables
    SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT will be
    constructed from the client supplied values as well.

    An example where this may be useful is on an intranet server
    where you have users connecting to the machine using short
    names such as www. You'll notice that if the users
    type a shortname and a URL which is a directory, such as
    http://www/splat, without the trailing
    slash, then Apache httpd will redirect them to
    http://www.example.com/splat/. If you have
    authentication enabled, this will cause the user to have to
    authenticate twice (once for www and once again
    for www.example.com -- see 
    the FAQ on this subject for more information). But if
    UseCanonicalName is set Off, then
    Apache httpd will redirect to http://www/splat/.

    There is a third option, UseCanonicalName DNS,
    which is intended for use with mass IP-based virtual hosting to
    support ancient clients that do not provide a
    Host: header. With this option, Apache httpd does a
    reverse DNS lookup on the server IP address that the client
    connected to in order to work out self-referential URLs.

    Warning
    If CGIs make assumptions about the values of SERVER_NAME,
    they may be broken by this option. The client is essentially free
    to give whatever value they want as a hostname. But if the CGI is
    only using SERVER_NAME to construct self-referential URLs,
    then it should be just fine.
    

See also

UseCanonicalPhysicalPort
ServerName
Listen



UseCanonicalPhysicalPort Directive

Description:Configures how the server determines its own port
Syntax:UseCanonicalPhysicalPort On|Off
Default:UseCanonicalPhysicalPort Off
Context:server config, virtual host, directory
Status:Core
Module:core

    In many situations Apache httpd must construct a self-referential
    URL -- that is, a URL that refers back to the same server. With
    UseCanonicalPhysicalPort On, Apache httpd will, when
    constructing the canonical port for the server to honor
    the UseCanonicalName directive,
    provide the actual physical port number being used by this request
    as a potential port. With UseCanonicalPhysicalPort Off,
    Apache httpd will not ever use the actual physical port number, instead
    relying on all configured information to construct a valid port number.

    Note
    The ordering of the lookup when the physical port is used is as
    follows:
     
     UseCanonicalName On
     
     
      Port provided in Servername
      Physical port
      Default port
     
     
     UseCanonicalName Off | DNS
     
     
      Parsed port from Host: header
      Physical port
      Port provided in Servername
      Default port
     
     
     

    With UseCanonicalPhysicalPort Off, the
    physical ports are removed from the ordering.
    


See also

UseCanonicalName
ServerName
Listen



<VirtualHost> Directive

Description:Contains directives that apply only to a specific
hostname or IP address
Syntax:<VirtualHost
    addr[:port] [addr[:port]]
    ...> ... </VirtualHost>
Context:server config
Status:Core
Module:core

    <VirtualHost> and
    </VirtualHost> are used to enclose a group of
    directives that will apply only to a particular virtual host. Any
    directive that is allowed in a virtual host context may be
    used. When the server receives a request for a document on a
    particular virtual host, it uses the configuration directives
    enclosed in the <VirtualHost>
    section. Addr can be any of the following, optionally followed by
    a colon and a port number (or *):

    
      The IP address of the virtual host;

      A fully qualified domain name for the IP address of the
      virtual host (not recommended);

      The character *, which acts as a wildcard and matches
      any IP address.

      The string _default_, which is an alias for *

    

    <VirtualHost 10.1.2.3:80>
  ServerAdmin webmaster@host.example.com
  DocumentRoot "/www/docs/host.example.com"
  ServerName host.example.com
  ErrorLog "logs/host.example.com-error_log"
  TransferLog "logs/host.example.com-access_log"
</VirtualHost>



    IPv6 addresses must be specified in square brackets because
    the optional port number could not be determined otherwise.  An
    IPv6 example is shown below:

    <VirtualHost [2001:db8::a00:20ff:fea7:ccea]:80>
  ServerAdmin webmaster@host.example.com
  DocumentRoot "/www/docs/host.example.com"
  ServerName host.example.com
  ErrorLog "logs/host.example.com-error_log"
  TransferLog "logs/host.example.com-access_log"
</VirtualHost>


    Each Virtual Host must correspond to a different IP address,
    different port number, or a different host name for the server,
    in the former case the server machine must be configured to
    accept IP packets for multiple addresses. (If the machine does
    not have multiple network interfaces, then this can be
    accomplished with the ifconfig alias command -- if
    your OS supports it).

    Note
    The use of <VirtualHost> does
    not affect what addresses Apache httpd listens on. You
    may need to ensure that Apache httpd is listening on the correct addresses
    using Listen.
    

    A ServerName should be
    specified inside each <VirtualHost> block. If it is absent, the
    ServerName from the "main"
    server configuration will be inherited.

    When a request is received, the server first maps it to the best matching
    <VirtualHost> based on the local
    IP address and port combination only.  Non-wildcards have a higher
    precedence. If no match based on IP and port occurs at all, the
    "main" server configuration is used.

    If multiple virtual hosts contain the best matching IP address and port,
    the server selects from these virtual hosts the best match based on the
    requested hostname.  If no matching name-based virtual host is found,
    then the first listed virtual host that matched the IP address will be
    used.  As a consequence, the first listed virtual host for a given IP address
    and port combination is the default virtual host for that IP and port
    combination.

    Security
    See the security tips
    document for details on why your security could be compromised if the
    directory where log files are stored is writable by anyone other
    than the user that starts the server.
    

See also

Apache HTTP Server Virtual Host documentation
Issues Regarding DNS and
    Apache HTTP Server
Setting
    which addresses and ports Apache HTTP Server uses
How <Directory>, <Location>
    and <Files> sections work for an explanation of how these
    different sections are combined when a request is received




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